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Pharynx

The pharynx    is a tube formed by skeletal muscle and lined by mucous membrane that is continuous with that of the nasal cavities (see [link] ). The pharynx is divided into three major regions: the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx ( [link] ).

Divisions of the pharynx

This figure shows the side view of the face. The different parts of the pharynx are color-coded and labeled.
The pharynx is divided into three regions: the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx.

The nasopharynx    is flanked by the conchae of the nasal cavity, and it serves only as an airway. At the top of the nasopharynx are the pharyngeal tonsils. A pharyngeal tonsil    , also called an adenoid, is an aggregate of lymphoid reticular tissue similar to a lymph node that lies at the superior portion of the nasopharynx. The function of the pharyngeal tonsil is not well understood, but it contains a rich supply of lymphocytes and is covered with ciliated epithelium that traps and destroys invading pathogens that enter during inhalation. The pharyngeal tonsils are large in children, but interestingly, tend to regress with age and may even disappear. The uvula is a small bulbous, teardrop-shaped structure located at the apex of the soft palate. Both the uvula and soft palate move like a pendulum during swallowing, swinging upward to close off the nasopharynx to prevent ingested materials from entering the nasal cavity. In addition, auditory (Eustachian) tubes that connect to each middle ear cavity open into the nasopharynx. This connection is why colds often lead to ear infections.

The oropharynx    is a passageway for both air and food. The oropharynx is bordered superiorly by the nasopharynx and anteriorly by the oral cavity. The fauces    is the opening at the connection between the oral cavity and the oropharynx. As the nasopharynx becomes the oropharynx, the epithelium changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium to stratified squamous epithelium. The oropharynx contains two distinct sets of tonsils, the palatine and lingual tonsils. A palatine tonsil    is one of a pair of structures located laterally in the oropharynx in the area of the fauces. The lingual tonsil    is located at the base of the tongue. Similar to the pharyngeal tonsil, the palatine and lingual tonsils are composed of lymphoid tissue, and trap and destroy pathogens entering the body through the oral or nasal cavities.

The laryngopharynx    is inferior to the oropharynx and posterior to the larynx. It continues the route for ingested material and air until its inferior end, where the digestive and respiratory systems diverge. The stratified squamous epithelium of the oropharynx is continuous with the laryngopharynx. Anteriorly, the laryngopharynx opens into the larynx, whereas posteriorly, it enters the esophagus.

Larynx

The larynx    is a cartilaginous structure inferior to the laryngopharynx that connects the pharynx to the trachea and helps regulate the volume of air that enters and leaves the lungs ( [link] ). The structure of the larynx is formed by several pieces of cartilage. Three large cartilage pieces—the thyroid cartilage (anterior), epiglottis (superior), and cricoid cartilage (inferior)—form the major structure of the larynx. The thyroid cartilage    is the largest piece of cartilage that makes up the larynx. The thyroid cartilage consists of the laryngeal prominence    , or “Adam’s apple,” which tends to be more prominent in males. The thick cricoid cartilage    forms a ring, with a wide posterior region and a thinner anterior region. Three smaller, paired cartilages—the arytenoids, corniculates, and cuneiforms—attach to the epiglottis and the vocal cords and muscle that help move the vocal cords to produce speech.

Questions & Answers

is that how the microscopic anatomy is
Elizabeth Reply
to understand the structures of the body. to understand how the structures of the body work . To understand how the structures of the body work and support the functions of life.
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The erect position of the body with the face directed forward, the arms at the side, and the palms of the hands facing forward, used as a reference in describing the relation of body parts to one another
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the study of the body's structures scientifically
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regional anatomy - the study of anatomy based on regions or divisions of the body and emphasizing the relations between various structures (muscles and nerves and arteries etc.) in that region.
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it's the scientific study of the body's structures in a particular region of the body, to study and understand how the body's structures in that region work together and the relations between them.
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membrane behind the nose
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Gross anatomy is the study of anatomy at the visible or (macroscopic) level
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through the inferior and superior vena cava
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it's the anatomy of complex body structures that can be seen without the aid of a microspe.
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what is anatomy
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study of internal structure of living organism
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study of body's structures scientifically.
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is the study structure of body
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endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm
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epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous
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epidermis, dermis and hypodermis
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by coronary circulation
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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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