<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

B cells

B cells    are immune cells that function primarily by producing antibodies. An antibody    is any of the group of proteins that binds specifically to pathogen-associated molecules known as antigens. An antigen    is a chemical structure on the surface of a pathogen that binds to T or B lymphocyte antigen receptors. Once activated by binding to antigen, B cells differentiate into cells that secrete a soluble form of their surface antibodies. These activated B cells are known as plasma cells.

T cells

The T cell    , on the other hand, does not secrete antibody but performs a variety of functions in the adaptive immune response. Different T cell types have the ability to either secrete soluble factors that communicate with other cells of the adaptive immune response or destroy cells infected with intracellular pathogens. The roles of T and B lymphocytes in the adaptive immune response will be discussed further in this chapter.

Plasma cells

Another type of lymphocyte of importance is the plasma cell. A plasma cell    is a B cell that has differentiated in response to antigen binding, and has thereby gained the ability to secrete soluble antibodies. These cells differ in morphology from standard B and T cells in that they contain a large amount of cytoplasm packed with the protein-synthesizing machinery known as rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Natural killer cells

A fourth important lymphocyte is the natural killer cell, a participant in the innate immune response. A natural killer cell (NK)    is a circulating blood cell that contains cytotoxic (cell-killing) granules in its extensive cytoplasm. It shares this mechanism with the cytotoxic T cells of the adaptive immune response. NK cells are among the body’s first lines of defense against viruses and certain types of cancer.

Lymphocytes
Type of lymphocyte Primary function
B lymphocyte Generates diverse antibodies
T lymphocyte Secretes chemical messengers
Plasma cell Secretes antibodies
NK cell Destroys virally infected cells

Visit this website to learn about the many different cell types in the immune system and their very specialized jobs. What is the role of the dendritic cell in an HIV infection?

Primary lymphoid organs and lymphocyte development

Understanding the differentiation and development of B and T cells is critical to the understanding of the adaptive immune response. It is through this process that the body (ideally) learns to destroy only pathogens and leaves the body’s own cells relatively intact. The primary lymphoid organs are the bone marrow and thymus gland. The lymphoid organs are where lymphocytes mature, proliferate, and are selected, which enables them to attack pathogens without harming the cells of the body.

Bone marrow

In the embryo, blood cells are made in the yolk sac. As development proceeds, this function is taken over by the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. Later, the bone marrow takes over most hematopoietic functions, although the final stages of the differentiation of some cells may take place in other organs. The red bone marrow    is a loose collection of cells where hematopoiesis occurs, and the yellow bone marrow is a site of energy storage, which consists largely of fat cells ( [link] ). The B cell undergoes nearly all of its development in the red bone marrow, whereas the immature T cell, called a thymocyte    , leaves the bone marrow and matures largely in the thymus gland.

Questions & Answers

list carpal bones from proximal to distal
Meshack Reply
when did the roman rule Britain
Rita Reply
what is function of the male respiratory system ?
poonam Reply
need to join this conversation
Collins
what does increased glomerular filtration results from
Nancy Reply
what is the difference between cardiovascular and respiratory system
Bokenana Reply
cardiovascular deals with blood,blood vessels and heart while respiratory system deal with gas exchange
Erick
send me your app line
Erick
just make a class group and have online classes take turns in teaching
maz
send yo app lines so I make a group
Erick
ok
Erick
you're simply saying no to teaching one another
maz
what's an epithelial tissue
Romantic Reply
epithelial tissue are thin tissues that covers all the exposed surfaces of the body
Ireen
is anyone from high school?
Sahil
yes
Sulaiman
Final year
Royleen
med student
brian
South Africa
brian
final year too
brian
INDIA
Sahil
describe the structure of the human body in terms of six levels of organisation
Chulufya Reply
list the muscles of abdomen and their functions
HANNAH Reply
list the neck muscles and their functions
HANNAH
list the thy muscles and their functions
HANNAH
four muscles in facial expression
nah
describe flow of blood
osoma Reply
are arteries do pumping action to get are blood flow
isaiah
causes of occasional female muscle weakness and body pain
sammy
hey Venus ulcers description
patrick
what is conduction in the heart occur
Daud Reply
what is anatomy
Prin Reply
anatomy is the study of human body.?
Sittie
anatomy is the study of scientific human body's structure.
Sittie
Anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body and the physical relationship between its constituent parts.
Maina
Anatomy is the study of the structures of body parts
Nepi
what are the principles of public health nursing?
tribel
Anatomy is the scientific study of human body parts .
Shakinah
Anatomy is the study of structure and relationship of the body structure
Stephen
Anatomy is the study of the structure and movement of the human body
renukha
energy generation molecular transport reproduction.
Sarah
Anatomy is the study of budy structures and their relationship.
Denis
Anatomy is the scientific study of human structure
jacinta
Anatomy ie the study of the human body and its functions.
Samuel
is haemoglobin considered as body fluid?
Bonnie Reply
yes
Musi
yes
Given
No
Stephen
Given plz support yo answer
Bonnie
no
Stephen
it's a pigment found on blood
Stephen
Haemoglobin is a protein found in RBCs. Seeing as it is a protein (solid) it isn't a fluid.
jason
circulation of blood through the left side of the heart
Dorothy Reply
explain features of epithelial tissue
Ghati Reply
describe with the help of a well level diagram the structure of a nephron's
Okello Reply
can't draw a diagram
Sanjith
function of animal cell
Ghati

Get the best Anatomy & Physiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Anatomy & Physiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask