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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Distinguish between the functional and structural classifications for joints
  • Describe the three functional types of joints and give an example of each
  • List the three types of diarthrodial joints

A joint    , also called an articulation    , is any place where adjacent bones or bone and cartilage come together (articulate with each other) to form a connection. Joints are classified both structurally and functionally. Structural classifications of joints take into account whether the adjacent bones are strongly anchored to each other by fibrous connective tissue or cartilage, or whether the adjacent bones articulate with each other within a fluid-filled space called a joint cavity    . Functional classifications describe the degree of movement available between the bones, ranging from immobile, to slightly mobile, to freely moveable joints. The amount of movement available at a particular joint of the body is related to the functional requirements for that joint. Thus immobile or slightly moveable joints serve to protect internal organs, give stability to the body, and allow for limited body movement. In contrast, freely moveable joints allow for much more extensive movements of the body and limbs.

Structural classification of joints

The structural classification of joints is based on whether the articulating surfaces of the adjacent bones are directly connected by fibrous connective tissue or cartilage, or whether the articulating surfaces contact each other within a fluid-filled joint cavity. These differences serve to divide the joints of the body into three structural classifications. A fibrous joint    is where the adjacent bones are united by fibrous connective tissue. At a cartilaginous joint    , the bones are joined by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage. At a synovial joint    , the articulating surfaces of the bones are not directly connected, but instead come into contact with each other within a joint cavity that is filled with a lubricating fluid. Synovial joints allow for free movement between the bones and are the most common joints of the body.

Functional classification of joints

The functional classification of joints is determined by the amount of mobility found between the adjacent bones. Joints are thus functionally classified as a synarthrosis or immobile joint, an amphiarthrosis or slightly moveable joint, or as a diarthrosis, which is a freely moveable joint (arthroun = “to fasten by a joint”). Depending on their location, fibrous joints may be functionally classified as a synarthrosis (immobile joint) or an amphiarthrosis (slightly mobile joint). Cartilaginous joints are also functionally classified as either a synarthrosis or an amphiarthrosis joint. All synovial joints are functionally classified as a diarthrosis joint.


An immobile or nearly immobile joint is called a synarthrosis    . The immobile nature of these joints provide for a strong union between the articulating bones. This is important at locations where the bones provide protection for internal organs. Examples include sutures, the fibrous joints between the bones of the skull that surround and protect the brain ( [link] ), and the manubriosternal joint, the cartilaginous joint that unites the manubrium and body of the sternum for protection of the heart.

Questions & Answers

list types epithelial tissue
Sangu Reply
Squeamus epithelial tissu Cubidal Columna Cilliated columna
squamous cuboidal columnar ciliated stratified
psuedostratified ciliated columnar stratified squamous transitional epithelium
explain how hormonal control aids in homeostasis regarding fluids and electrolytes, internal organs, clinical application, edema electrolyte imbalance?
Hensheal Reply
someone to help me explain those
parathyroid hormone : Calcium uptake, H+ and PO-4 wasting thyroid hormone, cortisol for temperature regulation by acting on B.V
also renin
why retro abdominal region called flank?
it is just Anatomical terminology
meaning side of body b/w rib cage and hip bone
list down all the hormones secreted by adrenal gland
Odong Reply
adrenaline hormones
The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction.
Javid Reply
how we can calculate the cardiac output
and how do we calculate the strock valume
stroke volume is not all the blood contained in the left ventricle; normally, only about two-thirds of the blood in the ventricle is expelled with each beat.
Cardiac output 5.5 l S. V 68.75 ml H. R 80bpm
If we consider SV 70, end systolic vol is about 15% of total(approx always) out of a total of 80-85 ml only 70ml is pumped per systole
what is macrophages?and its function
Sajjad Reply
macrophages they are white blood cells that engulf dead cells in the body
what is power stroke?
no idea
what is the stroke volume of heart?
If an autoimmune disorder targets the alpha cells, production of which hormone would be directly affected?
Samantha Reply
what is a muscle?
Gideon Reply
A band or bundle of fibrous tissue in a human or animal body that has the ability to contract, producing movement in or maintaining the position of parts of the body
what's endolphthamities and panophthalmities?
fluid around the brain
louise Reply
what ?
cerebro spinal fluid
The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by a clear fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This fluid is produced and stored in cavities in the brain called ventricles. It circulatesaround the brain, moving from ventricle to ventricle. ... Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is too much CSF
what is hydrocphalus
aminul Reply
Google krlena na madarchod yha maa chudwa rha ha sabko notification bhjke
when cerebrospinal fluid produce în the brain, i.e. brain ventricles, is to abundent in the brain and is not trăind out of the brain. as a consequence this lichid pute mechanical pressure oñ the brain and it pushes the cerebrum tissue. as a consequence this pressure on the neuronscan cause neurologi
cal disfunctions, for example clinical headache
. It is posible to drainout the fluid through a device dalles shunt,as i remember.
but where are also home medicinsfor decreasing the production of cerebrospin.fluid etc
there are some medicines that can decrease the production of csf
a neurologist advice is needed
i wrote some medicines NOT home medicines. it is a serious condition and specialized medical advice is needed. of course also general medical knowledge may be helpful, but not enough, a specialist is neede
if anyone help me in physiology
Radika Reply
i am BSN student of first year which book is best for physiology
i am BSN student of first year which book is best for physiology
ross and wilson anotomy and physiology
it's 1 book for anotomy and physiology it's best for bs nursing
yes Ross and wilson physiology is better for study
I'm also the student of bs nursing
I study guiton and hall &ganong
I'm also midwif help me be the best book for midwif
what ia the function of indocrine system
salam all friend
help me with this question; explain at least five emergency acute pain found in fundamental emergency medicine
Fascial compartment of forearm
what's a tissue?
Mwape Reply
a group of cells with the same function
tissue is a group of cells that perform the same functions.
explain a bit about a tissue
A tissue is made up of cells that are similar in shape and perform the same function, for instance brain cells form up a brain tissue. Whereas a group of tissues that perform the same function form an organ... so in this case the brain which is the organ is formed as a result of brain tissues.
what is gross anatomy
the branch of anatomy that deals with the structure of organs and tissues that are visible to the naked eye.
1.To know how the structures functions. 2.To easily identify the micro structures and the macro structures. 3.To be able to explain that anatomy is the study of the structures and physiology is the study of how the structures functions
Abban Reply
Describe the two classes of hormones (3 with subclasses) and how they affect their target cells.
Shalaeha Reply
what is control centre
Gohil Reply
Angie The larger air passage of the lung is
Angie Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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