<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Compare and contrast the three tunics that make up the walls of most blood vessels
  • Distinguish between elastic arteries, muscular arteries, and arterioles on the basis of structure, location, and function
  • Describe the basic structure of a capillary bed, from the supplying metarteriole to the venule into which it drains
  • Explain the structure and function of venous valves in the large veins of the extremities

Blood is carried through the body via blood vessels. An artery is a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart, where it branches into ever-smaller vessels. Eventually, the smallest arteries, vessels called arterioles, further branch into tiny capillaries, where nutrients and wastes are exchanged, and then combine with other vessels that exit capillaries to form venules, small blood vessels that carry blood to a vein, a larger blood vessel that returns blood to the heart.

Arteries and veins transport blood in two distinct circuits: the systemic circuit and the pulmonary circuit ( [link] ). Systemic arteries provide blood rich in oxygen to the body’s tissues. The blood returned to the heart through systemic veins has less oxygen, since much of the oxygen carried by the arteries has been delivered to the cells. In contrast, in the pulmonary circuit, arteries carry blood low in oxygen exclusively to the lungs for gas exchange. Pulmonary veins then return freshly oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart to be pumped back out into systemic circulation. Although arteries and veins differ structurally and functionally, they share certain features.

Cardiovascular circulation

This diagram shows how oxygenated and deoxygenated blood flow through the major organs in the body.
The pulmonary circuit moves blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the heart. The systemic circuit moves blood from the left side of the heart to the head and body and returns it to the right side of the heart to repeat the cycle. The arrows indicate the direction of blood flow, and the colors show the relative levels of oxygen concentration.

Shared structures

Different types of blood vessels vary slightly in their structures, but they share the same general features. Arteries and arterioles have thicker walls than veins and venules because they are closer to the heart and receive blood that is surging at a far greater pressure ( [link] ). Each type of vessel has a lumen    —a hollow passageway through which blood flows. Arteries have smaller lumens than veins, a characteristic that helps to maintain the pressure of blood moving through the system. Together, their thicker walls and smaller diameters give arterial lumens a more rounded appearance in cross section than the lumens of veins.

Structure of blood vessels

The top left panel of this figure shows the ultrastructure of an artery, and the top right panel shows the ultrastructure of a vein. The bottom panel shows a micrograph with the cross sections of an artery and a vein.
(a) Arteries and (b) veins share the same general features, but the walls of arteries are much thicker because of the higher pressure of the blood that flows through them. (c) A micrograph shows the relative differences in thickness. LM × 160. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of the University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Questions & Answers

what is a local potential
Nandi Reply
potential of neurons
vipin
response of neurons against sodium ion Chanel
vipin
The resting membrane potential of a neuron is about -70 mV (mV=millivolt) - this means that the inside of the neuron is 70 mV less than the outside. At rest, there are relatively more sodium ions outside the neuron and more potassium ions inside that neuron.
Adnan
what is tissues
Addai Reply
what is meant by control center?
Freeman Reply
what is anatomy
Ajibola Reply
is the study of the structure of the body and their relationship to each refers to the shapes iyo sizes
Khadar
If water touches hydrophobic tail, what will happen as negative effect?
Sayo
is the study of structural of the human body and their function
Masiame
What is the function of the Trachea
Samuel
what is a blastomere?
Toluba Reply
In biology, a blastomere is a type of cell produced by cleavage (cell division) of the zygote after fertilization and is an essential part of blastula formation.
Adnan
what is cell
Shivaani
Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells. They provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food, convert those nutrients into energy, and carry out specialized functions. ... Cells have many parts, each with a different
Adnan
function
Adnan
cell is a membrane bound unit that contains the fundamentals molecules of life
Sushma
A1
Adnan
excellent
Adnan
movement,reproduction, excretion, respiration ,growth ,nutrition, response to external stimuli.
Sushma
good
Adnan
sister excellent
Adnan
questions pushy ja sukty hy kya
Maryam
jwab forun milta hy ya ak do din k bad
Maryam
Maryam Riaz sister what you say
Adnan
i want to say that k kush questions k answer mil sukty hy mjhy
Maryam
inshallah
Adnan
zaror mere behen
Adnan
question kari
Adnan
hn mil mil sakte h na esly
Ziya
Which muscle of the gluteal region originates from lumber spine? a. Gluteus medius b. Psoas major c. Iliacus d. Gluteus maximus
Maryam
sweet sister's
Adnan
question tu kari Inshallah Allah behtar kariga
Adnan
to mcqs kia to hy
Maryam
answer ni mila abhi
Maryam
wait sister
Adnan
what is the functional unit of kidneys
Khadar
nephron is the functional unit of kidney
Maryam
Maryam Riaz sister option. d. gluteus maximus
Adnan
thanks
Maryam
sorry Maryam Riaz sister
Adnan
option b. psoas major
Adnan
right answer this one
Adnan
nephron is the functional unit of kidney
Ihsan
I discussed with to my teachers
Adnan
d
Ihsan
d. is right option bro
Adnan
yes
Ihsan
what is cell
Shilpa
cell is the smallest unit of life
Maryam
ok
Shilpa
Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells. They provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food, convert those nutrients into energy, and carry out specialized functions. ... Cells have many parts, each with a different
Adnan
function
Adnan
Maryam Riaz sister I m clear option d. also right thank you ihan bro
Adnan
type structure function origin insertion action of muscles
DAMINI Reply
oxygn amount in our body
Tg Reply
A normal level of oxygen is usually 95% or higher. Some people with chronic lung disease or sleep apnea can have normal levels around 90%. The “SpO2” reading on a pulse oximeter shows the percentage of oxygen in someone's blood
Adnan
What is the difference between cytoplasmic and endoplasmic
Ajibola Reply
The cytoplasm is 90℅ water and 10℅ of organic and inorganic compounds. The cytoplasm contains mitochondria. ... Lysosomes of Cytoplasm contains 50 different enzymes that digest proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The endoplasmic reticulum produces process and transport proteins, lipids for all the
Adnan
tarsal are cube shaped broad and long whiles metatarsal they are longer than they are wide
Priscilla Reply
articular cartilage serve as shock absorber and also reduces friction
Priscilla
articular cartilage serve as shock absorber and also reduces friction
Priscilla
when a bone joint with another bone
Priscilla
to know how you body function to know the relationship between the body parts to know specific functions of a certain body parts
romeo Reply
To know our body function we shd know chemical secretion of our glands, we can map all the function of our body and also relation ship between the body parts.
KUSUMA
that z it kusuma
kanaku
can you get fungi infection by seating on a public toilet?
Calls Reply
explain how blood acts as a connective tissue in the body
Rymz Reply
how does blood act as a connective tissue in the body
Rymz
what is anatomy
Victoriah Reply
fat deficiency in the body
Agbor Reply
Explain how body exercise regulates blood pressure
dranimva Reply
thank you
Thelma

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now




Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Anatomy & Physiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask