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When blood volume drops 5–10 percent, causing a decrease in blood pressure, there is a rapid and significant increase in ADH release from the posterior pituitary. Immediate vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure is the result. ADH also causes activation of aquaporin channels in the collecting ducts to affect the recovery of water to help restore vascular volume.

Diuretics and fluid volume

A diuretic    is a compound that increases urine volume. Three familiar drinks contain diuretic compounds: coffee, tea, and alcohol. The caffeine in coffee and tea works by promoting vasodilation in the nephron, which increases GFR. Alcohol increases GFR by inhibiting ADH release from the posterior pituitary, resulting in less water recovery by the collecting duct. In cases of high blood pressure, diuretics may be prescribed to reduce blood volume and, thereby, reduce blood pressure. The most frequently prescribed anti-hypertensive diuretic is hydrochlorothiazide. It inhibits the Na + / Cl symporter in the DCT and collecting duct. The result is a loss of Na + with water following passively by osmosis.

Osmotic diuretics promote water loss by osmosis. An example is the indigestible sugar mannitol, which is most often administered to reduce brain swelling after head injury. However, it is not the only sugar that can produce a diuretic effect. In cases of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, glucose levels exceed the capacity of the tubular glucose symporters, resulting in glucose in the urine. The unrecovered glucose becomes a powerful osmotic diuretic. Classically, in the days before glucose could be detected in the blood and urine, clinicians identified diabetes mellitus by the three Ps: polyuria (diuresis), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).

Regulation of extracellular na +

Sodium has a very strong osmotic effect and attracts water. It plays a larger role in the osmolarity of the plasma than any other circulating component of the blood. If there is too much Na + present, either due to poor control or excess dietary consumption, a series of metabolic problems ensue. There is an increase in total volume of water, which leads to hypertension (high blood pressure). Over a long period, this increases the risk of serious complications such as heart attacks, strokes, and aneurysms. It can also contribute to system-wide edema (swelling).

Mechanisms for regulating Na + concentration include the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and ADH (see [link] ). Aldosterone stimulates the uptake of Na + on the apical cell membrane of cells in the DCT and collecting ducts, whereas ADH helps to regulate Na + concentration indirectly by regulating the reabsorption of water.

Regulation of extracellular k +

Potassium is present in a 30-fold greater concentration inside the cell than outside the cell. A generalization can be made that K + and Na + concentrations will move in opposite directions. When more Na + is reabsorbed, more K + is secreted; when less Na + is reabsorbed (leading to excretion by the kidney), more K + is retained. When aldosterone causes a recovery of Na + in the nephron, a negative electrical gradient is created that promotes the secretion of K + and Cl into the lumen.

Questions & Answers

what is the name of the two subunits of L chain of a antibody structure
Arshi Reply
The pituitary gland lies in the
Aamir Reply
bony cavity,sella tursica
how does endochrondral ossification start in short bones?
Steven Reply
the chondroblast cells forms a cartilaginous bone model which becomes calcified in mid region and is innervated by perosteal capillaries. These capillaris replaces cartilages with bone tissue.
what is RH blood group
kuukyile Reply
It is a type of system for classifying blood groups according to the presence or absence of the Rh antigen.
What is the most important organ in the human body?
Gbemi Reply
the heart
or brain
the brain specifically is referred to as the control centre ..all nerve impulses are send to the brain which stimulates other specific parts of the body
please if l am Blood group B+ can l marry a lady with O- blood group?
structure of a serous membrane
Ziyanda Reply
are you asking?
In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth tissue membrane consisting of two layers of mesothelium, which secrete serous fluid. The inner layer that covers organs (viscera) in body cavities is called the visceral membrane. A second layer of epithelial cells of the serous membrane, called th
The two layers of serous membranes are named parietal and visceral. Between the two layers is a thin fluid filled space.[2] The fluid is produced by the serous membranes and stays between the two layers to reduce friction between the walls of the cavities and the internal organs when they move with
a continuation from the 1st one:: A second layer of epithelial cells of the serous membrane, called the parietal layer, lines the body wall. Between the two layers is a potential space, mostly empty except for a few milliliters of lubricating serous fluid that is secreted by the two serous membranes
Lubricated secretion of skin is called sebum
what is the greater tronchanter?
the greater trochanter is  femur is a large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence and a is a part of the system of the skeleton
Thanks Jessie...
what is the easiest way to learn labels of Anatomical structures?
Name the two phases of metabolism
Grace Reply
reproduction and growth
how about anabolism and catabolism?
In Simply Anabolism means formation... Catabolism means breakdown
two phases of reproductio?
Anabolism indicates potential & catabolism potential converts to kinetic
Name the most important life process in the human body in terms of anatomy and physiology
Nervous system
Every system is important for body functions
what is the difference between the functions of the adhesion belt and the desmosomes?
Mason Reply
what are the derivatives of the germ layer?
Miriam Reply
Pls explain the atlas of the cervical vertebral column
Ifunanya Reply
why does the material not allow in mri
Simran Reply
what do you mean 'mri'
short for magnetic resonance imaging. "the researchers used MRI to record the brain activity" a medical examination performed using magnetic resonance imaging. "he's having an MRI to determine the extent of the injury" an image obtained by magnetic resonance imaging. "after looking at the MRI, the d
what is the meaning of sutures
Ibrahim Reply
i do not know
immovable joints btn two bones.eg the skull bones
Really,it's true
Sutures are immovable junction between two bones e.g those of the skull
what should I do to get or to know what to do for me to be excellent in the course of anatomy and physiology
Sandra Reply
study harder
Between the heart and the Brain which one is more important to human being... discuss
Faith Reply
well the brain is important for motor skills, the heart is important for involuntary muscle movement supporting body functions. the body can survive without brain involvement, but the body cannot last without the heart
granted the heart is important, but the brain gives the body purpose
the brain is more important
Even though the brain helps the human being to behave normally and purposefully, I think the heart is much more important cos human being cannot live without the heart
change the question
hello guys
it is difficult to select which organ is more important, now you can replace the heart with a mechanical device and the body could still function, and with technology today brain activity can also be replicated. But life would not be the same
there's coordination btn the two..so without any of them no life
the heart
The brain is important to humans.
what is homeostasis
Rebecca Reply
It is the condition when body feel comfortable
Wo feels hungry, thirty due to homeostasis
Is the maintenance of the internal environment of all the body cells for normal growth

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