<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

B cells

B cells    are immune cells that function primarily by producing antibodies. An antibody    is any of the group of proteins that binds specifically to pathogen-associated molecules known as antigens. An antigen    is a chemical structure on the surface of a pathogen that binds to T or B lymphocyte antigen receptors. Once activated by binding to antigen, B cells differentiate into cells that secrete a soluble form of their surface antibodies. These activated B cells are known as plasma cells.

T cells

The T cell    , on the other hand, does not secrete antibody but performs a variety of functions in the adaptive immune response. Different T cell types have the ability to either secrete soluble factors that communicate with other cells of the adaptive immune response or destroy cells infected with intracellular pathogens. The roles of T and B lymphocytes in the adaptive immune response will be discussed further in this chapter.

Plasma cells

Another type of lymphocyte of importance is the plasma cell. A plasma cell    is a B cell that has differentiated in response to antigen binding, and has thereby gained the ability to secrete soluble antibodies. These cells differ in morphology from standard B and T cells in that they contain a large amount of cytoplasm packed with the protein-synthesizing machinery known as rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Natural killer cells

A fourth important lymphocyte is the natural killer cell, a participant in the innate immune response. A natural killer cell (NK)    is a circulating blood cell that contains cytotoxic (cell-killing) granules in its extensive cytoplasm. It shares this mechanism with the cytotoxic T cells of the adaptive immune response. NK cells are among the body’s first lines of defense against viruses and certain types of cancer.

Lymphocytes
Type of lymphocyte Primary function
B lymphocyte Generates diverse antibodies
T lymphocyte Secretes chemical messengers
Plasma cell Secretes antibodies
NK cell Destroys virally infected cells

Visit this website to learn about the many different cell types in the immune system and their very specialized jobs. What is the role of the dendritic cell in an HIV infection?

Primary lymphoid organs and lymphocyte development

Understanding the differentiation and development of B and T cells is critical to the understanding of the adaptive immune response. It is through this process that the body (ideally) learns to destroy only pathogens and leaves the body’s own cells relatively intact. The primary lymphoid organs are the bone marrow and thymus gland. The lymphoid organs are where lymphocytes mature, proliferate, and are selected, which enables them to attack pathogens without harming the cells of the body.

Bone marrow

In the embryo, blood cells are made in the yolk sac. As development proceeds, this function is taken over by the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. Later, the bone marrow takes over most hematopoietic functions, although the final stages of the differentiation of some cells may take place in other organs. The red bone marrow    is a loose collection of cells where hematopoiesis occurs, and the yellow bone marrow is a site of energy storage, which consists largely of fat cells ( [link] ). The B cell undergoes nearly all of its development in the red bone marrow, whereas the immature T cell, called a thymocyte    , leaves the bone marrow and matures largely in the thymus gland.

Questions & Answers

ഫസ്റ്റ് ചാപ്റ്റർ ഇംപോർട്ടൻസ് പോസ്റ്റ്
Reshma Reply
Yes....
Loving
nhi samjh aya
Anshika
Nhi wt is this
Loving
I don't know
Anshika
Okk wre frm u r
Loving
what is mean of? reshma
Asad
D bone in d ankle joint re what ?
Ifunanya Reply
can one define a cell as a basic unit of a living organism
Michael Reply
Which of the following hormones are responsible for the adolescent growth spurt? estrogen and testosterone, even in women?
Kepa Reply
estrogen
Farhana
Estrogen!
Jazil
estrogen hormone
Michael
yes estrogen hormone
Anshika
yes
Sale
What is sling give d characteristics of sling uses of sling
adamu Reply
a sling a rope used in hunting ie throwing of rocks
Michael
I went to learn anatomy of joints
Arman Reply
me 2
adamu
joint have 3 cartilaginous joint fibrous joint synovial joint U can reserch in Google can explain U well
sopheaktra
define sling
adamu
To throw with a circular or arcing motion
real
what is respiration
Osele Reply
what is respiration
Paul
Respiration is the process by which oxygen is taken in and carbon dioxide is given out.
Md
Respiration is the combination of inhalation and exhalation.
Khim
inhalation is the taking in air from environment to lung and exhalation is taking out sir from the lung to environment ..
Khim
is the process by wich gases(oxygen and carbon(IV)oxide go through the nose, trachea and the lungs to the blood stream
Michael
what is holistic
Kibrom Reply
Holistic means encompassing the whole of a thing, and not just the part. Holistic medicine looks at the whole person for answers, not just at physical symptoms. You might have heard of holistic medicine, which tries to treat someone as mind and body, instead of treating only the part of the patient
I want to learn one by one system like skeleton system... muscular system
Mary Reply
i want to learn this
Kibrom
what is the difference between regional anatomy and system anatomy
David
system anatomy is when we study the system like digestive, circulatory, reproductive, but regional anatomy is studying the anatomy by regions of body like anatomy of neck, thorax, head etc. Regional anatomy may include system anatomy...
Biplav
yes
Anshika
explain in details factors that affects bone development
Precious Reply
describe the process of bone healing
Precious
out line factors that delays bone healing
Precious
actually,for the bone formation they must be sufficient level of calcium,phosphorus and vitamin D in the body for it to happen smoothly.
lucky
the above mentioned substances are the ones able for the formation and repairing of bones.
lucky
explain in details factors that affects bone development
Precious
what are tissue
muki Reply
a lots of cells make tissue and a cell body is tissue
Rabab
cells come together to form a tissue and tissues come together to form an organ
Adoma
what is appendicular skeleton
OSE Reply
appendicular skeleton is upper limbs and lower limbs
sopheaktra
what is decompression sickness?
Japhar Reply
It occurs in Scuba divers when they rise too quicky to the sea surface , their oxygen tanks have oxygen mixed with N2 gas which has a high solubility at sea level , when the diver rises the N2 gas bubbles out of plasma and this causes Air Ebolism
Siphiwesihle
if a single part if Nervous system doesn't function like synapse? what will occur
Lilian Reply
no transmission of impulses no respond cause mechanical damage
Komolika
what happens when calcium ion channel is blocked
Jachike
a MORAH /MORAH
Kechi
meaning?
Jachike
transmission of impure
sopheaktra
when calcium ion channels block . lightheadedness Low blood pressure. Slower heart rate. Drowsiness. Constipation. Swelling of feet ankles and legs. Increased appetite. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD
sopheaktra
I'm not sure about it
sopheaktra
low blood pressure
Anshika
what is this substance
Peng Reply
In the human body, there are no atoms as separate entities. Instead, they constantly interact with other atoms to form and break down more complex materials. To fully understand anatomy and physiology, you must understand how atoms are involved in such interactions. The key is to understand the beha
Warid
what are functions of muscle cell
Veronicah
please can someone help with ten functions of the following hormones 1.Gastrin 2. Adrenal sex hormone 3. Secretin 4. Follicle Stimulating Hormone 5. Glucagon 6. Progesterone
Har
4.produces the oetrogen and bursts open to release egg cells.
Komolika
5.regulates the level of glucose in the blood and it is secreted when glucose low in the blood.
Komolika

Get the best Anatomy & Physiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Anatomy & Physiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask