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Pharynx

The pharynx    is a tube formed by skeletal muscle and lined by mucous membrane that is continuous with that of the nasal cavities (see [link] ). The pharynx is divided into three major regions: the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx ( [link] ).

Divisions of the pharynx

This figure shows the side view of the face. The different parts of the pharynx are color-coded and labeled.
The pharynx is divided into three regions: the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx.

The nasopharynx    is flanked by the conchae of the nasal cavity, and it serves only as an airway. At the top of the nasopharynx are the pharyngeal tonsils. A pharyngeal tonsil    , also called an adenoid, is an aggregate of lymphoid reticular tissue similar to a lymph node that lies at the superior portion of the nasopharynx. The function of the pharyngeal tonsil is not well understood, but it contains a rich supply of lymphocytes and is covered with ciliated epithelium that traps and destroys invading pathogens that enter during inhalation. The pharyngeal tonsils are large in children, but interestingly, tend to regress with age and may even disappear. The uvula is a small bulbous, teardrop-shaped structure located at the apex of the soft palate. Both the uvula and soft palate move like a pendulum during swallowing, swinging upward to close off the nasopharynx to prevent ingested materials from entering the nasal cavity. In addition, auditory (Eustachian) tubes that connect to each middle ear cavity open into the nasopharynx. This connection is why colds often lead to ear infections.

The oropharynx    is a passageway for both air and food. The oropharynx is bordered superiorly by the nasopharynx and anteriorly by the oral cavity. The fauces    is the opening at the connection between the oral cavity and the oropharynx. As the nasopharynx becomes the oropharynx, the epithelium changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium to stratified squamous epithelium. The oropharynx contains two distinct sets of tonsils, the palatine and lingual tonsils. A palatine tonsil    is one of a pair of structures located laterally in the oropharynx in the area of the fauces. The lingual tonsil    is located at the base of the tongue. Similar to the pharyngeal tonsil, the palatine and lingual tonsils are composed of lymphoid tissue, and trap and destroy pathogens entering the body through the oral or nasal cavities.

The laryngopharynx    is inferior to the oropharynx and posterior to the larynx. It continues the route for ingested material and air until its inferior end, where the digestive and respiratory systems diverge. The stratified squamous epithelium of the oropharynx is continuous with the laryngopharynx. Anteriorly, the laryngopharynx opens into the larynx, whereas posteriorly, it enters the esophagus.

Larynx

The larynx    is a cartilaginous structure inferior to the laryngopharynx that connects the pharynx to the trachea and helps regulate the volume of air that enters and leaves the lungs ( [link] ). The structure of the larynx is formed by several pieces of cartilage. Three large cartilage pieces—the thyroid cartilage (anterior), epiglottis (superior), and cricoid cartilage (inferior)—form the major structure of the larynx. The thyroid cartilage    is the largest piece of cartilage that makes up the larynx. The thyroid cartilage consists of the laryngeal prominence    , or “Adam’s apple,” which tends to be more prominent in males. The thick cricoid cartilage    forms a ring, with a wide posterior region and a thinner anterior region. Three smaller, paired cartilages—the arytenoids, corniculates, and cuneiforms—attach to the epiglottis and the vocal cords and muscle that help move the vocal cords to produce speech.

Questions & Answers

what are the functions of nervous tissue?
Christa Reply
what the name of the largest nerve in the body and the disease associated with it
ORIATO Reply
 sciatic nerve disease - sciatica
Fath
what is body fluid compartment
Zinny Reply
what is negative feedback
Zinny
What is the importance of anatomical position?
Charles
it helps in the knowledge of the position of the various internal organs which can be very useful in surgery or diagnosis
mirabelle
Can I go to nursing school?
Kaye Reply
Any student from Philippines here?
Kaye
no
Hussain
what ur class
Hussain
no class
Kaye
no
up. student from Phil.😊
Aila
present
Silyn
here from Philippines
Myline
I'm country Bangladesh
Kawsar
my country is INDIA
Mosin
Me, I am a student from the Philippines
janyl
me im from phil...
Kristine
Pwede po mag ask?
janyl
What's the difference of radiologist and radtech?
janyl
Kaye:Can I go to nursing school? Yes Po you can..there are Alot of nursing/pre-med schools in our country.that offers scholarships
janyl
I'm not sure po but you can try and enroll in Up diliman😊
janyl
Nursing Nursing is a profession that involves health care and health awareness activities for the general public. This profession emphasizes the importance of restoring the health and well-being of a patient or person personally, family or socially. A person involved in this profession, skilled
Kawsar
I'm suggesting you to try up diliman because of their holistic and superior education..
janyl
What is the difference between physiology and anatomy?
Kawsar
Physiology is the study of normal body functions & its mechanisms. Anatomy is the study of normal structure.
Fath
thanks
Kawsar
Thankyousomuch to all of you💖
Kaye
what is the difference between anatomy and physiology?
Grace Reply
I don't know let's tell me about
syed
Hi
Philip
anatomy is about structure, physiology is about function. Human physiology is the scientific study of the chemistry and physics of the structures of the body 
Moira
hello
Kaye
hi
Kawsar
hi
Twevs
good morning
Kawsar
Are you a nursing student?
Twevs
yes soon
Kaye
hello
Brenda
Can you upload anatomy of skeletal system with structure of all bony parts?
Fath Reply
any students from kazakhstan
Sruthi Reply
What kind of tests are there to identify the RBCs in blood?
Amjad Reply
what kinds of people can use Cefixime
abul Reply
especially women where there is uterine healing
Moses
what is a cell
Diana Reply
Hey guys
abul
***medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/basics/cell/#:~:text=Cells%20are%20the%20basic%20building,and%20carry%20out%20specialized%20functions.&text=Cells%20have%20many%20parts%2C%20each%20with%20a%20different%20function.
Donna
that should help you diana
Donna
cell is basic structural and functional unit of life
Sabika
Cell is the basic structural , functional & biological unit of all known organisms.
Fath
list the body fluid compactment
Zinny Reply
how many Bone's are the in human being
Rose Reply
A normal human body have 206 bones
Charles
206
Zinny
206
juma
In child 300 and in adult 206
rahul
Explain the Kreb cycle
Jerry Reply
what is thymus?
Jakia Reply
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.  thymus is located in the upper front part of the chest, in the anterior superior mediastinum, behind the sternum, and in front of the heart.
Analyn
if you are shot with a bullet and it penetrate your lung, which thoracic body cavity will be affected, and which layer of serous membrane would damage first?
Mnm Reply
hello
Abila
heart and cell membrane
Romantic
Anterior thoracic body cavity will be affected and parietal layer of serous membrane will he damaged.
ok thank you sir
Romantic
plura
Ishwar
hi
irshad
hi
Romantic

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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