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The shallow depression located on the anteromedial (internal) surface of the upper ilium is called the iliac fossa    . The inferior margin of this space is formed by the arcuate line of the ilium    , the ridge formed by the pronounced change in curvature between the upper and lower portions of the ilium. The large, inverted U-shaped indentation located on the posterior margin of the lower ilium is called the greater sciatic notch    .

Ischium

The ischium forms the posterolateral portion of the hip bone (see [link] ). The large, roughened area of the inferior ischium is the ischial tuberosity    . This serves as the attachment for the posterior thigh muscles and also carries the weight of the body when sitting. You can feel the ischial tuberosity if you wiggle your pelvis against the seat of a chair. Projecting superiorly and anteriorly from the ischial tuberosity is a narrow segment of bone called the ischial ramus    . The slightly curved posterior margin of the ischium above the ischial tuberosity is the lesser sciatic notch    . The bony projection separating the lesser sciatic notch and greater sciatic notch is the ischial spine    .

Pubis

The pubis forms the anterior portion of the hip bone (see [link] ). The enlarged medial portion of the pubis is the pubic body    . Located superiorly on the pubic body is a small bump called the pubic tubercle    . The superior pubic ramus    is the segment of bone that passes laterally from the pubic body to join the ilium. The narrow ridge running along the superior margin of the superior pubic ramus is the pectineal line    of the pubis.

The pubic body is joined to the pubic body of the opposite hip bone by the pubic symphysis. Extending downward and laterally from the body is the inferior pubic ramus    . The pubic arch    is the bony structure formed by the pubic symphysis, and the bodies and inferior pubic rami of the adjacent pubic bones. The inferior pubic ramus extends downward to join the ischial ramus. Together, these form the single ischiopubic ramus    , which extends from the pubic body to the ischial tuberosity. The inverted V-shape formed as the ischiopubic rami from both sides come together at the pubic symphysis is called the subpubic angle    .

Pelvis

The pelvis consists of four bones: the right and left hip bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx (see [link] ). The pelvis has several important functions. Its primary role is to support the weight of the upper body when sitting and to transfer this weight to the lower limbs when standing. It serves as an attachment point for trunk and lower limb muscles, and also protects the internal pelvic organs. When standing in the anatomical position, the pelvis is tilted anteriorly. In this position, the anterior superior iliac spines and the pubic tubercles lie in the same vertical plane, and the anterior (internal) surface of the sacrum faces forward and downward.

The three areas of each hip bone, the ilium, pubis, and ischium, converge centrally to form a deep, cup-shaped cavity called the acetabulum    . This is located on the lateral side of the hip bone and is part of the hip joint. The large opening in the anteroinferior hip bone between the ischium and pubis is the obturator foramen    . This space is largely filled in by a layer of connective tissue and serves for the attachment of muscles on both its internal and external surfaces.

Questions & Answers

what is grey matter
OJO Reply
What is neuron cell
Dev Reply
neuron cell are the fundamental units of the brain and nervous system responsible for receiving sensory input from the external world, for sending motor commands to muscles and for transforming and relaying the electrical signals at every step in between
Serphine
What is the perfect defination of Life
Dev
What does a word muscles means ?
Abubakar
what is Anatomy
Hannah Reply
because she's not yet at term
Nansi Reply
what is physiology?
Grace Reply
what is physiology
David
Physiology is the study of the functions of the human body
Hannah
am a new one!!
sekela
what is Homeopathy
AHMED
Name three reasons to study anatomy and physiology
Hills Reply
Why do we need to study anatomy and physiology
Hills Reply
I want to study human anatomy
Ibrahim
What is anatomy
Christabel Reply
anatomy is the branch of medicine in which we study structure and part of the body
Ansar
The art of studying the different parts of any organized body, to discover their situation, structure, and economy; dissection.
ChristMas
anatomy is the study of structures that make up the body and how they re realated to each other
BRIAN
Anatomy is the study of structures of the body and shape of the body and body parts and their relationship to one another.
Abubakar
what is the importance of anatomy
Emeria Reply
cockroch ka sir katne ke bad o jinda kyu rahta
Anil
it helps us to understand the function of human metabolic system and also who these systems works which system play what role and so on
Nouman
It's help us to know the structure, functions and relationship of the human body
Nansi
it helps us to appreciate how the internal structures works
Damilola
Anatomy opens up to us the structures of the various parts of the human body and correlates them to their specific function respectively
Michael
Anatomy is helps us understand and explore much about human structures
Chuks
systemic anatomy in short
Puja Reply
systemic circulation is the circulation in which heart supplies oxygenated blood to cells of body and takes deoxygenated blood away from body to heart
Ajeet
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am new here
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I'm new as well
Crystal
who ask the question about cockroach cutting head
Nouman
the answer is They have an open circulatory system, which there's much less pressure in.After you cut their heads off very often their necks would seal off just by clotting," he adds. "There's no uncontrolled bleeding.The hardy vermin breathe through spiracles, or little holes in each body se
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AKARAJ
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Alfred
Hi
Christabel
hi
Sachin
how do plateletes function in blood clotting
lydia
what are the function of the cell membrane
Elias Reply
the cell membrane helps in allowing and removing substances from the cell. it also aid in protecting the cell and giving it a definite shape.
veezy
The cell membrane is made up of a semipermeable lipid bi-layer which helps to regulate the kind of materials that enters it through active transport and passive diffusion.
Michael
properties of cardiac muscle
hotlan Reply
Myogenic,contain intercalated disc,control involuntary,fond in the heart walls only
AMOS
The exclusive characteristics of heart muscle is consists of Intercalated disc.
Doctor
Among the involuntary muscles only cardiac muscle is Myogenic but rest of involuntary muscles is Neurogenic.
Doctor
What about the exclusive characteristics of smooth muscle apart from lacking myofibrils in it's structure?
AMOS
What is the different between neurogenic and carcinogenic?
AMOS
distinguish between anatomy and physiology
Jonah Reply
Anatomy is the study of body parts and were they are found, physiology is the study of body parts and their functions
Alex
Anatomy is the scientific study of the body structure. While Physiology is the scientific study of the body function
Ossy
Anatomy is te scientic study of body parts and their physical relationship between different systems while physiology is te study of how all body systems works.
AMOS
1, molecules 2, cells 3, organ 4, tissue 5, organ systems 6l, organisms
hamisu Reply
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Musaffa
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Musaffa
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mushahid
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AMOS
smallest part in anatomy
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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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