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B cells

B cells    are immune cells that function primarily by producing antibodies. An antibody    is any of the group of proteins that binds specifically to pathogen-associated molecules known as antigens. An antigen    is a chemical structure on the surface of a pathogen that binds to T or B lymphocyte antigen receptors. Once activated by binding to antigen, B cells differentiate into cells that secrete a soluble form of their surface antibodies. These activated B cells are known as plasma cells.

T cells

The T cell    , on the other hand, does not secrete antibody but performs a variety of functions in the adaptive immune response. Different T cell types have the ability to either secrete soluble factors that communicate with other cells of the adaptive immune response or destroy cells infected with intracellular pathogens. The roles of T and B lymphocytes in the adaptive immune response will be discussed further in this chapter.

Plasma cells

Another type of lymphocyte of importance is the plasma cell. A plasma cell    is a B cell that has differentiated in response to antigen binding, and has thereby gained the ability to secrete soluble antibodies. These cells differ in morphology from standard B and T cells in that they contain a large amount of cytoplasm packed with the protein-synthesizing machinery known as rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Natural killer cells

A fourth important lymphocyte is the natural killer cell, a participant in the innate immune response. A natural killer cell (NK)    is a circulating blood cell that contains cytotoxic (cell-killing) granules in its extensive cytoplasm. It shares this mechanism with the cytotoxic T cells of the adaptive immune response. NK cells are among the body’s first lines of defense against viruses and certain types of cancer.

Lymphocytes
Type of lymphocyte Primary function
B lymphocyte Generates diverse antibodies
T lymphocyte Secretes chemical messengers
Plasma cell Secretes antibodies
NK cell Destroys virally infected cells

Visit this website to learn about the many different cell types in the immune system and their very specialized jobs. What is the role of the dendritic cell in an HIV infection?

Primary lymphoid organs and lymphocyte development

Understanding the differentiation and development of B and T cells is critical to the understanding of the adaptive immune response. It is through this process that the body (ideally) learns to destroy only pathogens and leaves the body’s own cells relatively intact. The primary lymphoid organs are the bone marrow and thymus gland. The lymphoid organs are where lymphocytes mature, proliferate, and are selected, which enables them to attack pathogens without harming the cells of the body.

Bone marrow

In the embryo, blood cells are made in the yolk sac. As development proceeds, this function is taken over by the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. Later, the bone marrow takes over most hematopoietic functions, although the final stages of the differentiation of some cells may take place in other organs. The red bone marrow    is a loose collection of cells where hematopoiesis occurs, and the yellow bone marrow is a site of energy storage, which consists largely of fat cells ( [link] ). The B cell undergoes nearly all of its development in the red bone marrow, whereas the immature T cell, called a thymocyte    , leaves the bone marrow and matures largely in the thymus gland.

Questions & Answers

the diagram of cell membrane
Teboh Reply
***bit.ly/3kfrdfV Link to cell membrane diagram and more info... Remember, you can search the A&P book.
Favour
describe diffusion as used in body fluid movement
brenda Reply
how was the movement?
Jenelyn
classify joint function with example
James Reply
cytoskeleton diagram
Miriam Reply
two types of cells biological name
Miriam
eukaryotic and prokaryotic
Emraan
Difference between extracellular and intracellular
Eli Reply
extra (exit) outside the cell, intra inside the cell
Amy
extracellular is 1/3 of total body water...intracellular 2/3 of total body water
Favour
what is culture?
Nepi
is the way of life of people
Senior
He meant in the context of biology...as in "tissue culture".
Favour
what does depolarization mean...in terms of the cardiovascular system?
Tracy
depolarization means contraction
Abhishek
Depolarization, in the context of nerve and muscle tissue, is the decrease in membrane potential (the separation of charge between the extracellular and intracellular compartments). Basically, the charge in the cell becomes more positive when depolarization occurs.
Favour
In fact, the word 'polarize' used to mean dividing into extremes or opposite sides. The opposite is true for 'depolarize'
Favour
intracellular fluid is the fluid compartment of the body consisting of all water present within the cell...while extracellular fluid is water present out of the cell
brenda
Why apoptosis is important?
Duchess Reply
name the body organ which helps in the oxygenation of body.
Eli Reply
respiratory system (lungs) brings in oxygen...cardiovascular system (blood) circulate it
Favour
Lungs
Emil
the heart
Mpho
Mpho explain
Favour
cells... tissues...organs
Angel Reply
...organ system...organism...species...population...
Favour
connection between respiratory and circulatory system
Philip Reply
what's respiratory system
Philip
what is the site of CHON synthesis?
World
send them boi
alex
dont send via email...use google drive
Favour
Which major organ lies deep to the right hypochondriac region?
Biswajit Reply
deep as in most posterior kidney, or deep as in inferior small intestine?
Amy
liver
Emil
what is the weakest muscle in the body?
zharla Reply
stapedius
Isaac
Connective tissues composed with the blood
EDIGAR Reply
blood cell
nancy
Why is left bronchi narrow?
nancy
what is the most widely distributed connective tissue in the body?
Aila Reply
hai
SURENDRA
why most we study anatomy
Xavier Reply
hello
Aila
Anatomy it is a Latin word which mean to dissect mean to cut apart the study of body structure is called anatomy internel anatomy to study of internel structure of oganisms e.g frog dissection external anatomy/ Grass anatomy the study of external stucture of the organi the study of body
Ikram
Anatomy it is a Latin word which mean to dissect mean to cut apart the study of body structure is called anatomy internel anatomy to study of internel structure of oganisms e.g frog dissection external anatomy/ Grass anatomy the study of external stucture of the organi the study of body
Ikram
Anatomy it is a Latin word which mean to dissect mean to cut apart the study of body structure is called anatomy internel anatomy to study of internel structure of oganisms e.g frog dissection external anatomy/ Grass anatomy the study of external stucture of the orga the study of body
Ikram
hi
Ikram
hi Ikram
Favour
to study our body organ by organ
Ceyni
anatomy
SURENDRA
structural anatomy
SURENDRA
we must study anatomy to be able to classify diseases according to their location, structured and rotation.
Favour
analyse the structure and function of the brainstem
Clinton Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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