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Stretching of the ligaments that support the longitudinal arches can lead to pain. This can occur in overweight individuals, with people who have jobs that involve standing for long periods of time (such as a waitress), or walking or running long distances. If stretching of the ligaments is prolonged, excessive, or repeated, it can result in a gradual lengthening of the supporting ligaments, with subsequent depression or collapse of the longitudinal arches, particularly on the medial side of the foot. This condition is called pes planus (“flat foot” or “fallen arches”).

Chapter review

The lower limb is divided into three regions. These are the thigh, located between the hip and knee joints; the leg, located between the knee and ankle joints; and distal to the ankle, the foot. There are 30 bones in each lower limb. These are the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, seven tarsal bones, five metatarsal bones, and 14 phalanges.

The femur is the single bone of the thigh. Its rounded head articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone to form the hip joint. The head has the fovea capitis for attachment of the ligament of the head of the femur. The narrow neck joins inferiorly with the greater and lesser trochanters. Passing between these bony expansions are the intertrochanteric line on the anterior femur and the larger intertrochanteric crest on the posterior femur. On the posterior shaft of the femur is the gluteal tuberosity proximally and the linea aspera in the mid-shaft region. The expanded distal end consists of three articulating surfaces: the medial and lateral condyles, and the patellar surface. The outside margins of the condyles are the medial and lateral epicondyles. The adductor tubercle is on the superior aspect of the medial epicondyle.

The patella is a sesamoid bone located within a muscle tendon. It articulates with the patellar surface on the anterior side of the distal femur, thereby protecting the muscle tendon from rubbing against the femur.

The leg contains the large tibia on the medial side and the slender fibula on the lateral side. The tibia bears the weight of the body, whereas the fibula does not bear weight. The interosseous border of each bone is the attachment site for the interosseous membrane of the leg, the connective tissue sheet that unites the tibia and fibula.

The proximal tibia consists of the expanded medial and lateral condyles, which articulate with the medial and lateral condyles of the femur to form the knee joint. Between the tibial condyles is the intercondylar eminence. On the anterior side of the proximal tibia is the tibial tuberosity, which is continuous inferiorly with the anterior border of the tibia. On the posterior side, the proximal tibia has the curved soleal line. The bony expansion on the medial side of the distal tibia is the medial malleolus. The groove on the lateral side of the distal tibia is the fibular notch.

The head of the fibula forms the proximal end and articulates with the underside of the lateral condyle of the tibia. The distal fibula articulates with the fibular notch of the tibia. The expanded distal end of the fibula is the lateral malleolus.

The posterior foot is formed by the seven tarsal bones. The talus articulates superiorly with the distal tibia, the medial malleolus of the tibia, and the lateral malleolus of the fibula to form the ankle joint. The talus articulates inferiorly with the calcaneus bone. The sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus helps to support the talus. Anterior to the talus is the navicular bone, and anterior to this are the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiform bones. The cuboid bone is anterior to the calcaneus.

The five metatarsal bones form the anterior foot. The base of these bones articulate with the cuboid or cuneiform bones. The metatarsal heads, at their distal ends, articulate with the proximal phalanges of the toes. The big toe (toe number 1) has proximal and distal phalanx bones. The remaining toes have proximal, middle, and distal phalanges.

Watch this video to view how a fracture of the mid-femur is surgically repaired. How are the two portions of the broken femur stabilized during surgical repair of a fractured femur?

A hole is drilled into the greater trochanter, the bone marrow (medullary) space inside the femur is enlarged, and finally an intramedullary rod is inserted into the femur. This rod is then anchored to the bone with screws.

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Visit this site to perform a virtual knee replacement surgery. The prosthetic knee components must be properly aligned to function properly. How is this alignment ensured?

Metal cutting jigs are attached to the bones to ensure that the bones are cut properly prior to the attachment of prosthetic components.

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Use this tutorial to review the bones of the foot. Which tarsal bones are in the proximal, intermediate, and distal groups?

The proximal group of tarsal bones includes the calcaneus and talus bones, the navicular bone is intermediate, and the distal group consists of the cuboid bone plus the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiform bones.

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View this link to learn about a bunion, a localized swelling on the medial side of the foot, next to the first metatarsophalangeal joint, at the base of the big toe. What is a bunion and what type of shoe is most likely to cause this to develop?

A bunion results from the deviation of the big toe toward the second toe, which causes the distal end of the first metatarsal bone to stick out. A bunion may also be caused by prolonged pressure on the foot from pointed shoes with a narrow toe box that compresses the big toe and pushes it toward the second toe.

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Questions & Answers

what is anatomy
philemon Reply
what is anatomy in terms of medicine
philemon
it is the study of human and animal form by observing and examined them and sometimes dissecting them and view the tiny thing by the use of microscope
Kwasi
Describe early studies into the working of human body.
Tonny Reply
please guys help me to answer this question; Define the two divisions of the skeleton ?
Jonathan Reply
two example of appendicular skeleton
Jonathan
upper limb ;eg humerus n lower limb;eg tibia
BRIAN
write notes on the level of organizations of the body .citing examples for each level
Kaddijatou Reply
Jonathan Nyakpaab
Jonathan
what is pathology
Ericka Reply
1 What is Nasogastric Tube 2 what is the difference between Nasogastric Aspiration and Nasogastric Feeling
ONOJA Reply
You measure a patient’s blood pressure at 130/85. Calculate the patient’s pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure. Determine whether each pressure is low, normal, or high.
ONOJA
normal blood pressure 120/80
Mohd
what are nocciceptors
Soul
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Mohd
1 Its a flexible tube of plastic that pass through the nose, down to the eausophagus, and into the stomach, used to add or remove substances in the stomach.
Andile
2 Nasogastric aspiration is process of draining stomach contents via a tube and Nasogastric feeding is a process of giving food liquid through nasogastric tube
Andile
andile sir what is meant by clonoscopy
Soul
colonoscpopy is an exam use to detect abnormalities in the small intestine or the colon
Kwasi
What is the skin
Astony Reply
What is physiology?
Njaleny Reply
it is the study of the structure of the human body and its reationship
Hannah
Physiology is the function of a living organism.
Tammy
It is the study of human body and how it works.
Excellent
if physiology is the function of a living organism.What method is keep for living organism.
Ayoore
what are Nocciceptors
Soul
Nocciceptors are pain receptor
Kwasi
Or is a sensory neutron that responds to damage
Kwasi
It is d entrance to the uterus
Umunna Reply
It is a small sensitive part of female sex organ which is found above d entrance to the vagina
Umunna
A small hole in d skin which contains d root of a hair
Umunna
A thin membrane which covers d entrance to the vagina in young girls
Umunna
Is a gland that produces milk in women and other female mammals
Umunna
A repeated process in which a woman's uterus gets ready for pregnancy which ends in a period if she does not get pregnant
Umunna
hello
Tamba
hi sir
Mir
Hi
Umunna
hi
Shafiq
why should one consider studying neuroanatomy to physiology?
Ramadhan
hy
kaabe
hi
HANIFA
hmm
Hussain
hi
Muhammad
Hi
miya
hello
Adnan
hello
Ayoore
so in summary describe the level of structural complexity within the body
Freda Reply
how can we describe briefly the levels of organization
Frimpong
what is blood clotting
Yahya Reply
Tiny bits in your blood called platelets get "turned on" by triggers released when a blood vessel is damaged. They stick to the walls in the area and each other, changing shape to form a plug that fills in the broken part to stop blood from leaking out. When activated, platelets also release chemic
Nilesh
what is a cell membrane?
lameck Reply
the cell membrane also called the plasma membrane regulates the transport materials entering and existing the cell.
Frimpong
what's gonna happen if your body doesn't produce enough white blood cells?
Jovanna
how is speech controlled by the nervous system?
Joseph Reply
The broca's area
Udebuana
what does the HCG
Njaleny
chemical level cellular level tissue level organ level organ system level organism
Chidera Reply
Yes Yes because they can perform more than one activity in the body
Chidera
the functional and structural unit of the body
Chidera
A group of 2 or more tissue that come together to perform a specific function
Chidera
A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function or meet the physiological needs of the body
Chidera
It's the highest level of organization
Chidera
2 or more cells coming together to perform a specific function
Chidera
Skeletal muscles can be tetanized but not cardiac muscle.Discuss
Okeke Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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