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The external female genitalia are collectively called the vulva. The vagina is the pathway into and out of the uterus. The man’s penis is inserted into the vagina to deliver sperm, and the baby exits the uterus through the vagina during childbirth.

The ovaries produce oocytes, the female gametes, in a process called oogenesis. As with spermatogenesis, meiosis produces the haploid gamete (in this case, an ovum); however, it is completed only in an oocyte that has been penetrated by a sperm. In the ovary, an oocyte surrounded by supporting cells is called a follicle. In folliculogenesis, primordial follicles develop into primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles. Early tertiary follicles with their fluid-filled antrum will be stimulated by an increase in FSH, a gonadotropin produced by the anterior pituitary, to grow in the 28-day ovarian cycle. Supporting granulosa and theca cells in the growing follicles produce estrogens, until the level of estrogen in the bloodstream is high enough that it triggers negative feedback at the hypothalamus and pituitary. This results in a reduction of FSH and LH, and most tertiary follicles in the ovary undergo atresia (they die). One follicle, usually the one with the most FSH receptors, survives this period and is now called the dominant follicle. The dominant follicle produces more estrogen, triggering positive feedback and the LH surge that will induce ovulation. Following ovulation, the granulosa cells of the empty follicle luteinize and transform into the progesterone-producing corpus luteum. The ovulated oocyte with its surrounding granulosa cells is picked up by the infundibulum of the uterine tube, and beating cilia help to transport it through the tube toward the uterus. Fertilization occurs within the uterine tube, and the final stage of meiosis is completed.

The uterus has three regions: the fundus, the body, and the cervix. It has three layers: the outer perimetrium, the muscular myometrium, and the inner endometrium. The endometrium responds to estrogen released by the follicles during the menstrual cycle and grows thicker with an increase in blood vessels in preparation for pregnancy. If the egg is not fertilized, no signal is sent to extend the life of the corpus luteum, and it degrades, stopping progesterone production. This decline in progesterone results in the sloughing of the inner portion of the endometrium in a process called menses, or menstruation.

The breasts are accessory sexual organs that are utilized after the birth of a child to produce milk in a process called lactation. Birth control pills provide constant levels of estrogen and progesterone to negatively feed back on the hypothalamus and pituitary, and suppress the release of FSH and LH, which inhibits ovulation and prevents pregnancy.

Watch this video to observe ovulation and its initiation in response to the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland. What specialized structures help guide the oocyte from the ovary into the uterine tube?

The fimbriae sweep the oocyte into the uterine tube.

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Watch this series of videos to look at the movement of the oocyte through the ovary. The cilia in the uterine tube promote movement of the oocyte. What would likely occur if the cilia were paralyzed at the time of ovulation?

The oocyte may not enter the tube and may enter the pelvic cavity.

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Questions & Answers

what are Lifting techniques in nursing
stanley Reply
I learned that anatomy is the study of the human structure. the smaller ones can be observed by the assistance of a microscope
Hawa Reply
what are the disciplines of anatomy
Bint Reply
what is the difference between anatomy and physiology
Addai Reply
the structure of human body the function of human body
Addai
anatomy is study of structure off the body and physioly is the study off function of body eg git
Dr
study of structure of the human body and study of function off the body eg git
Dr
nice 👍
qaseh
what does anatomy deal with
Kigani
anatomy deala with study of human structure eg human skeltal syatem
Dr
explain proximal in terms of anatomy body planes and give examples
Kwasi
don't know
Addai
anyone here MLT
Hussain
anatomy is the study structure of the human body. physiology is the study of function and mechanism of the body
Hamdi
I don't get the consent wrll
Joana Reply
sorry
Dawood
what's pathology
SABINA Reply
the science of the causes and effects of diseases
Emmi
yes dear you right
Tabish
ryt
Hussain
is the study of the abnormalities and how they affect body functions often causing illness
Frimpong
type of anatomy
yuns
what are cells
Mwenya
Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms which they exist from pre-existing cells that self replicate on their own.
Tantoh
Cell is the structural , Function and heritability unit of life .
Juna
What is the function of liver
Sagir
liver helps in detoxification of toxic substances in our body and metabolism of drugs
sai
what is septum sacroti
Soul
What drugs use to treat liver diseases
Sagir
like ursodioxycholic acid
sai
liver disease medications depend on the type of liver disease..cirrhosis of the liver, no alcoholic liver disease, hep b, hep c.
Maria
what causes thyphoid
casmir
Maria what is carcinoma
Soul
What is ursodioxycholic acid
Sagir
No alcoholic liver diseases and help b, help c
Sagir
carcinoma is a type of cancer. it starts in the tissue lining the organs such as the liver or kidneys
Maria
describe the urine formation
Sarah Reply
Body water
Kashif
the urine formation is described as the wrist fluid that comes out of body
Hellen
glomerular filtration, reabsorption, secretion.
Maria
nice
Hussain
good Hellen kehn
Dr
is it wast fluids or wrist?
Baldwin
how many bones does human have?
Akech
Good
Opeyemi
206
Emmi
about the urine formation Baldwin asked that is it wast fluid or wrist that comes out from the body
Frimpong
waste fluids.. Tubular Reabsorption: Glucose, Amino acids, Proteins, Vitamins, Lactate, Urea, Uric acid, NA+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-, H20 Tubular Secretions: Urea, Uric acids, Creatinine, H+, NH4+, K+ Each different section of the Nephron has a different mineral that absorbs or secrets
Emmi
thank you Emmi
Baldwin
No problem, Happy to help.. I have a photo of exactly which area does what but I don't think I can attach on this platform..
Emmi
***socratic.org/questions/how-is-urine-produced-in-the-kidneys On this web page if you stroll down, there is a picture describing it. its my favorite diagram. Very clear and informative
Emmi
how can we access another platform to share more information
Baldwin
if you copy and paste that url.. it'll take you to the website I mentioned
Emmi
done.....
Baldwin
define what is a port of entry for microorganisms?
Baldwin
A port of entry is specific to that microorganism. for example, a bacterial infection of the urinary tract would have the vaginal area as the port of entry.
Emmi
droplets from one person to another is one 👍
Maria
or you can say that a viral microbe/flu would have a port of entry through the nasal cavity, mouth, or eyes because it is part of the respiratory system.
Emmi
in children more then 206 and in young man 206
Dr
emmi,you losing me .,. please make me clear on the question👆
Baldwin
nice Emmi
Hussain
children have 300
Alem
is female circumcision possible
Soul
noo, there is no possibility for circumcision in females
sai
Carcinoma is abnormal division of cells in the body without control
DECONS
female circumcision is technically considered a human rights violation and done in some countries where they partially remove the external female genitalia.
Maria
then again tubal ligation, I believe is like female circumcision. they tie or burn your tubes and you won't be able to have kiddos. so yes, its possible.
Maria
ok and so I mean not having kids .just kidding there I'm going to sleep.
Maria
Maria madam thank you for sharing this information
Soul
hello
Dawood
what is single cell
Jimmy Reply
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of a single cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of multiple cells. ... Many eukaryotes are multicellular, but many are unicellular such as protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi.
Noor
Why is important to check if the blood if compatible before transfusion ?
Kelvin Reply
to avoid cases of intravenous clupping in blood which can be fatal....bcos blood is incopartable
John
Thank you.good answer
Kelvin
what are the clinical significant of thyroid gland
Jennifer Reply
what is a metabolism?
Kheth Reply
Metabolism is the sum total of all the chemical processes in the body. It is divided into an anabolic(building up) and catabolic(breaking down) metabolism)
Jonas
Oh ok
King
sir what is constructive and destructive metabolism
Soul
is anyone
Soul
Describe the system s that maintain the internal environment of a human body
Nora Reply
an organism is a living being that had a cellular structure and that can independently perform all physiological functions needed for life.
Nwecho Reply
a tissue is a group of similar cells that work together to perform a particular function
Nwecho
chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organs level, organ systems, organisms
Nwecho Reply
they're reproduction but also produces hormones dus they're endocrine system
Nwecho
cells are smallest independent functional unit of a living organism
Nwecho
an organ is an anatomically distinct structure of the body composed of two or more tissue
Nwecho
an organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform a major function.
Nwecho
Structural Organization of the human body.
Tammy
very good
quophy
What is a cavity
Isaac Reply
Permanently damaged areas in teeth that develop into tiny holes
MASLAH
what is meant by epithelial tissue
Zahid

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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