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Carbohydrate digestion

The average American diet is about 50 percent carbohydrates, which may be classified according to the number of monomers they contain of simple sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) and/or complex sugars (polysaccharides). Glucose, galactose, and fructose are the three monosaccharides that are commonly consumed and are readily absorbed. Your digestive system is also able to break down the disaccharide sucrose (regular table sugar: glucose + fructose), lactose (milk sugar: glucose + galactose), and maltose (grain sugar: glucose + glucose), and the polysaccharides glycogen and starch (chains of monosaccharides). Your bodies do not produce enzymes that can break down most fibrous polysaccharides, such as cellulose. While indigestible polysaccharides do not provide any nutritional value, they do provide dietary fiber, which helps propel food through the alimentary canal.

The chemical digestion of starches begins in the mouth and has been reviewed above.

In the small intestine, pancreatic amylase    does the ‘heavy lifting’ for starch and carbohydrate digestion ( [link] ). After amylases break down starch into smaller fragments, the brush border enzyme α-dextrinase    starts working on α-dextrin    , breaking off one glucose unit at a time. Three brush border enzymes hydrolyze sucrose, lactose, and maltose into monosaccharides. Sucrase splits sucrose into one molecule of fructose and one molecule of glucose; maltase    breaks down maltose and maltotriose into two and three glucose molecules, respectively; and lactase    breaks down lactose into one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose. Insufficient lactase can lead to lactose intolerance.

Carbohydrate digestion flow chart

This flow chart shows the steps in digestion of carbohydrates. The different levels shown are starch and glycogen, disaccharides and monosaccharides. Under each type of sugar, examples and the enzymes responsible for digestion are listed.
Carbohydrates are broken down into their monomers in a series of steps.

Protein digestion

Proteins are polymers composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds to form long chains. Digestion reduces them to their constituent amino acids. You usually consume about 15 to 20 percent of your total calorie intake as protein.

The digestion of protein starts in the stomach, where HCl and pepsin break proteins into smaller polypeptides, which then travel to the small intestine ( [link] ). Chemical digestion in the small intestine is continued by pancreatic enzymes, including chymotrypsin and trypsin, each of which act on specific bonds in amino acid sequences. At the same time, the cells of the brush border secrete enzymes such as aminopeptidase    and dipeptidase    , which further break down peptide chains. This results in molecules small enough to enter the bloodstream ( [link] ).

Digestion of protein

This diagrams shows the human digestive system and identifies the role of each organ in protein digestion. A text call-out next to each organ details the specific function.
The digestion of protein begins in the stomach and is completed in the small intestine.

Digestion of protein flow chart

This flow chart shows the different steps in the digestion of protein. The four steps shown are protein, large polypeptides, short peptides and amino acids and amino acids.
Proteins are successively broken down into their amino acid components.

Lipid digestion

A healthy diet limits lipid intake to 35 percent of total calorie intake. The most common dietary lipids are triglycerides, which are made up of a glycerol molecule bound to three fatty acid chains. Small amounts of dietary cholesterol and phospholipids are also consumed.

Questions & Answers

movement of small intestine
Bage Reply
which hormone is responsible for Gluten enteropathy
Syed
the diagram of the respiratory system
Praise Reply
Describe sinus of brain
MAHESH Reply
name the 5 layers of skin
Monika Reply
stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
airiz
those are the layers of epidermis,, then we have the dermis which has got two layers that is papillary dermis and reticular dermis.. beneath the dermis we have the hypodermis( subcutaneous layer) which is not considered as a layer of skin
airiz
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ivhil Reply
is the information or comment about something that one have done
Gaston
may be you mean negative or positive feedback mechanism... in general, they mean body response its changes by hormones
Quran
what is endocrin?
Asim Reply
why should there be an inhibition to the process of gastric production in the intestinal phase
Gloria
endocrine is a system through which the secretions of cell directly poured into blood.
Tanveer
why should there be an inhibition to the process of gastric production in the intestinal
Gloria Reply
what is a stimuli
Emily Reply
environment factor that cause a cell to respond
Quran
stimuli is the internal and external factors that cause an action in the environmental
Okello
name the two types of melanin
Laila Reply
deference between RNA and DNA
Ali
.DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid. The sugar portion of DNA is 2-Deoxyribose.RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid.  The sugar portion of RNA is Ribose.2.The helix geometry of DNA is of B-Form (A or Z also present).The helix geometry of RNA is of A-Form.3.DNA is a double-stranded molecule consisting o
ryaisha
DNA consists of nucleotide but RNA consists of nucleoside DNA is double standard but RNA is single standard.In DNA at the nitrogen bases adinine,guanine,cytocin and thymine is present but in case of RNA instead of thymine uracil is present.
Tanveer
what are rdna
Budumari
what is a heart
walker Reply
A heart is an organ in the circulatory system that pumps blood throughout the systemic regions
bernard
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Aisha
Anatomy is the study of internal and external structures and the relationship among body parts. (the study of structure).
Tomi
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nadine
guys help me with a pathophysiology of asthma
Luyando
asthma is a lungs related disorder in which there is difficulty in breathing due to some allergic factors, their is inflamation of alveoli of respiratory part of lungs.also decreases the surface area.
Tanveer
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Tanveer
the pathophysiology of asthma is complex and involves airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness pathogenesis of asthma
Omkar
what is the function of the liver
Okello
help in formation of blood
Kiran
skin infection please explain
Hamza Reply
what is malignant melanoma
Akon Reply
cancerous cells 🙄
Sohan
yes benign is non-cancerous malignant is cancerous.
Joseph
that's a simple way of explaining it however you're different processes like mitosis etc a person can be at risk for developing cancer etc
Joseph
you can tell by an unusual growth of a mole, or change in size coloration with melanoma. which is abnormal growth of your squamous cells.
Joseph
Types of wandering connective tissues
Hassan Reply
what are the meaning of skin
PASHALINA Reply
study of external structure of human body is known as anatomy
VINAY Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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