<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that affects the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum and presents as lesions commonly found on the scalp, ears, and hands ( [link] ). It is the second most common skin cancer. The American Cancer Society reports that two of 10 skin cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, and it is more aggressive than basal cell carcinoma. If not removed, these carcinomas can metastasize. Surgery and radiation are used to cure squamous cell carcinoma.

Squamous cell carcinoma

This photo shows a man’s nose. The squamous cell carcinoma is located just above the tip of the nose and appears as a deep red, irregularly-shaped sore that spans almost the entire bridge of his nose.
Squamous cell carcinoma presents here as a lesion on an individual’s nose. (credit: the National Cancer Institute)

Melanoma

A melanoma    is a cancer characterized by the uncontrolled growth of melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells in the epidermis. Typically, a melanoma develops from a mole. It is the most fatal of all skin cancers, as it is highly metastatic and can be difficult to detect before it has spread to other organs. Melanomas usually appear as asymmetrical brown and black patches with uneven borders and a raised surface ( [link] ). Treatment typically involves surgical excision and immunotherapy.

Melanoma

This photo shows a patch of fair skin containing a large melanoma. The melanoma is black and splotchy in appearance.
Melanomas typically present as large brown or black patches with uneven borders and a raised surface. (credit: the National Cancer Institute)

Doctors often give their patients the following ABCDE mnemonic to help with the diagnosis of early-stage melanoma. If you observe a mole on your body displaying these signs, consult a doctor.

  • A symmetry – the two sides are not symmetrical
  • B orders – the edges are irregular in shape
  • C olor – the color is varied shades of brown or black
  • D iameter – it is larger than 6 mm (0.24 in)
  • E volving – its shape has changed

Some specialists cite the following additional signs for the most serious form, nodular melanoma:

  • E levated – it is raised on the skin surface
  • F irm – it feels hard to the touch
  • G rowing – it is getting larger

Skin disorders

Two common skin disorders are eczema and acne. Eczema is an inflammatory condition and occurs in individuals of all ages. Acne involves the clogging of pores, which can lead to infection and inflammation, and is often seen in adolescents. Other disorders, not discussed here, include seborrheic dermatitis (on the scalp), psoriasis, cold sores, impetigo, scabies, hives, and warts.

Eczema

Eczema is an allergic reaction that manifests as dry, itchy patches of skin that resemble rashes ( [link] ). It may be accompanied by swelling of the skin, flaking, and in severe cases, bleeding. Many who suffer from eczema have antibodies against dust mites in their blood, but the link between eczema and allergy to dust mites has not been proven. Symptoms are usually managed with moisturizers, corticosteroid creams, and immunosuppressants.

Eczema

This photo shows a person with eczema on the ventral skin of the forearms. The person is a Caucasian, but his or her white skin is mottled with many red marks, giving it the appearance of a rash. In some areas, the skin is breaking and peeling.
Eczema is a common skin disorder that presents as a red, flaky rash. (credit: “Jambula”/Wikimedia Commons)

Acne

Acne is a skin disturbance that typically occurs on areas of the skin that are rich in sebaceous glands (face and back). It is most common along with the onset of puberty due to associated hormonal changes, but can also occur in infants and continue into adulthood. Hormones, such as androgens, stimulate the release of sebum. An overproduction and accumulation of sebum along with keratin can block hair follicles. This plug is initially white. The sebum, when oxidized by exposure to air, turns black. Acne results from infection by acne-causing bacteria ( Propionibacterium and Staphylococcus ), which can lead to redness and potential scarring due to the natural wound healing process ( [link] ).

Questions & Answers

tell the easyst way to learn anatomy
Khaliif Reply
hello im new here, im a nursing student
SHUGA Reply
ooh
shiv
welcome
shiv
wlcm
Rahil
dub
Ndowmi
maleria
Ndowmi
Anopheles
shiv
welcome shuga
Om
please am new here. Am a nurse awaiting to be posted .
Ntiamoah
hi I'm new here too
faleke
Feleke Sharon Welcome
FAKE
FAKE DrLUPO thank you
faleke
hello guys
Chuks
hello guys 🤗
Sneha
hello
Chuks
whose in Nigeria
Chuks
🙋🙋
faleke
what is inner breeding
Vijay Reply
you don't have any answer
Vijay
please don't waste my time
Vijay
wait
shiv
inbreeding is mating or breeding with organism that are genetically related
shiv
s
Pankaj
who this SRY
Pankaj
inner breeding is breeding among the same species of organisms
Anna
*inbreeding
Anna
yes same speciesor same genetic organism
shiv
description of the menstruation cycle
Namyalo Reply
explain the menstruation cycle
Namyalo
explain the menstrual cycle
Ugo
menstrual cycle is came due to FSH and LH
shiv
fsh
Ndowmi
Description of menestraul cycle
Amos Reply
what is the anatomy
FAKE Reply
Anatomy is study of structure of organs.
Sneha
thanks
FAKE
The scientific study of the structure of human or animal bodies.
FAKE
I was confused as to which one would be right and I asked
FAKE
My answer and you answer both are right.
Sneha
i want to improve my study i like this app i interest physiology and anatomy
Su Reply
I also like this app am really interested in learning anatomy and physiology.
Johny
I have this book with my anatomy class it's awesome! also if look at crashcourse anatomy on you tube!
AMY
what the name
isaiah
umesh. rede
Rede
what is heart and long type answer
Lalita Reply
its a organ in the body
ay
describe about hear chambers.. valves.. arteries.. veins.. circulation.. inferior/superior venacava, aorta., tricuspid valve, mitral valve. pulmonary artery/vein, how oxigenation occur,systolic presure diastolic pressure.. stroke volume,cardiac output, ets.. heart located in which place, describe it
Sanjith
if you describe what I cited up, thogh you can write a long type answer about heart
Sanjith
autonomic functions took over
Vanarith Reply
What did they take over?
Eric
what is the average volume of blood in men and why does it varrie from women?
Esther Reply
what is the average volume of blood in men
Esther
5to6liter
Sarita
5to6liter dt
Sarita
umesh. rede
Rede
what is the definition of anatomy
Noriah Reply
Search google
killer
^of
chieng
The study of the structure or internal workings of something. "Machiavelli's anatomy 
Eric
post. communi. artey... this may be true 70% hope correct
vikash Reply
what is the strongest muscle in the human body?
Robiam Reply
masseter muscles
Om
yes masseter..... jaw muscle is the strongest muscle..
Sarita
Kidneys have direct effect on which
The function the loop
function of the loop?
Eric
the function of the loop of henle is to increase surface area for reasorbtion.
Conan
what is an atom and it's functions
Jany
An atom is the basic building block of matter.
Eric
which is the largest digestive gland in our body
Shubu
stomach
Barbara
What is the smallest bone in the body of the human being?
Kelvin
pisiform
Chulit
how many found in the head
obakunmi
4
ayesha
I think stapes is the smallest bone in human body
Sanjith
22
Sanjith
yes stapes is the smallest bone of our body
Sarita
the smallest bone is stapes in the ear
Isaac
smallest bone in human body is stapes or stirrup present in the middle ear ..
Om
stapes yes
Robiam
blood work and purification and it leads to cardiac systen
vikash
explain function of kidney
Noel Reply
filtration
Naqash
Secretagogue hormones
Sa
Organising water
Sa
hi
Jany
they help in the reproduction of sperms
Jany
Their main job is to cleanse the blood of toxins and transform the waste into urine. The kidney have several functions though. I think it is important to know them, but not in depth. But to truly understand the kindney's over all importance.
Eric
I meant to say the kidneys have.
Eric
how kidney help in reprdution of sperms?
Amir
the basic and functinal unit of kidney is Nephron
Sanjith

Get the best Anatomy & Physiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Anatomy & Physiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask