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Human dna

This figure shows a double helix.
Human DNA is described as a double helix that resembles a molecular spiral staircase. In humans the DNA is organized into 46 chromosomes.

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Describe the fundamental composition of matter
  • Identify the three subatomic particles
  • Identify the four most abundant elements in the body
  • Explain the relationship between an atom’s number of electrons and its relative stability
  • Distinguish between ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and hydrogen bonds
  • Explain how energy is invested, stored, and released via chemical reactions, particularly those reactions that are critical to life
  • Explain the importance of the inorganic compounds that contribute to life, such as water, salts, acids, and bases
  • Compare and contrast the four important classes of organic (carbon-based) compounds—proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids—according to their composition and functional importance to human life

The smallest, most fundamental material components of the human body are basic chemical elements. In fact, chemicals called nucleotide bases are the foundation of the genetic code with the instructions on how to build and maintain the human body from conception through old age. There are about three billion of these base pairs in human DNA.

Human chemistry includes organic molecules (carbon-based) and biochemicals (those produced by the body). Human chemistry also includes elements. In fact, life cannot exist without many of the elements that are part of the earth. All of the elements that contribute to chemical reactions, to the transformation of energy, and to electrical activity and muscle contraction—elements that include phosphorus, carbon, sodium, and calcium, to name a few—originated in stars.

These elements, in turn, can form both the inorganic and organic chemical compounds important to life, including, for example, water, glucose, and proteins. This chapter begins by examining elements and how the structures of atoms, the basic units of matter, determine the characteristics of elements by the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the atoms. The chapter then builds the framework of life from there.

Questions & Answers

What is a dorsal cavity?
John Reply
Explain in detail mitosis and meiosis
sedeck Reply
What is Sodium Potassium Pump?
Mwamba Reply
The process of moving sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrance is an active transport process involving the hydrolysis of ATP to provide the necessary energy. It involves an enzyme referred to as Na+/K+-ATPase
USAMA
yes men.
Carlos
does it mean that there are two definitions of gross anatomy
Esther Reply
what is anatomy?
Hridy Reply
I think it's the study of the internal and external features of the body and its physical relationship between body parts
Esther
anatomy is the study of all the structure of body parts of living organisms
Kishan
jaundice causes by when bilirubin blockage of bilary system
mahamed Reply
Yeah, when there is a blockage in the bilary system( bile ducts) which lead to obstruction of the bile pigments called bilirubin leading to a characteristically yellowish appearance of the eyes.
ibrahim
yes
mahamed
there are three main resons why bilirubin levels in the blood may rise: 1. pre-hepatic jaundice,2. hepatic jaundice, 3. post hepatic
mahamed
hi pls what causes jaundice
Umar Reply
where the love feelings emotions and hate lies in the body?
Loving Reply
what is Regional anatomy
Sharon Reply
Please information on dialysis
Agbo Reply
what is the relationship between Clinical officer general, unqualified professionals and traditional healers?
Purity Reply
is that how the microscopic anatomy is
Elizabeth Reply
to understand the structures of the body. to understand how the structures of the body work . To understand how the structures of the body work and support the functions of life.
Dora Reply
procedures that removes waste from body when kidneys dont function properly..
maribel Reply
Want to join
Ordeal
dialysis
kimunya
dialysis is a process to remove extra fluid , impurities and waste product from the blood and to correct electrolytes imbalance such as sodium, potassium and calcium with the help of dialysis machine. when the kidneys can't do their job.
Kishan
what will lead a person to dialysis
Agbo
what's metabolic acidosis
Nana
A condition in which too much acid accumulates in the body. Causes of metabolic acidosis can include buildup of body toxins, kidney failure, and ingestion of certain drugs or toxins, such as methanol or large doses of aspirin. It can be a rare complication of diabetes.
Loving
What is dialisis
Friday Reply
When kidney is not functioning properly than with the help of dialysis blood filtration is occur Or we can say that it is a process through which filtration of blood is done
sonugora
dialysis is a process of removing wastes, excess fluid ,impurities from the blood and to correct electrolytes imbalance such as sodium, potassium and calcium etc with the help of dialysis machine.when the kidney can't do their job.
Kishan

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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