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As exterior signs of aging increase, so do the interior signs, which are not as noticeable. The incidence of heart diseases, respiratory syndromes, and type 2 diabetes increases with age, though these are not necessarily age-dependent effects. Wound healing is slower in the elderly, accompanied by a higher frequency of infection as the capacity of the immune system to fend off pathogen declines.

Aging is also apparent at the cellular level because all cells experience changes with aging. Telomeres, regions of the chromosomes necessary for cell division, shorten each time cells divide. As they do, cells are less able to divide and regenerate. Because of alterations in cell membranes, transport of oxygen and nutrients into the cell and removal of carbon dioxide and waste products from the cell are not as efficient in the elderly. Cells may begin to function abnormally, which may lead to diseases associated with aging, including arthritis, memory issues, and some cancers.

The progressive impact of aging on the body varies considerably among individuals, but Studies indicate, however, that exercise and healthy lifestyle choices can slow down the deterioration of the body that comes with old age.

Homeostatic imbalances

Tissues and cancer

Cancer is a generic term for many diseases in which cells escape regulatory signals. Uncontrolled growth, invasion into adjacent tissues, and colonization of other organs, if not treated early enough, are its hallmarks. Health suffers when tumors “rob” blood supply from the “normal” organs.

A mutation is defined as a permanent change in the DNA of a cell. Epigenetic modifications, changes that do not affect the code of the DNA but alter how the DNA is decoded, are also known to generate abnormal cells. Alterations in the genetic material may be caused by environmental agents, infectious agents, or errors in the replication of DNA that accumulate with age. Many mutations do not cause any noticeable change in the functions of a cell. However, if the modification affects key proteins that have an impact on the cell’s ability to proliferate in an orderly fashion, the cell starts to divide abnormally. As changes in cells accumulate, they lose their ability to form regular tissues. A tumor, a mass of cells displaying abnormal architecture, forms in the tissue. Many tumors are benign, meaning they do not metastasize nor cause disease. A tumor becomes malignant, or cancerous, when it breaches the confines of its tissue, promotes angiogenesis, attracts the growth of capillaries, and metastasizes to other organs ( [link] ). The specific names of cancers reflect the tissue of origin. Cancers derived from epithelial cells are referred to as carcinomas. Cancer in myeloid tissue or blood cells form myelomas. Leukemias are cancers of white blood cells, whereas sarcomas derive from connective tissue. Cells in tumors differ both in structure and function. Some cells, called cancer stem cells, appear to be a subtype of cell responsible for uncontrolled growth. Recent research shows that contrary to what was previously assumed, tumors are not disorganized masses of cells, but have their own structures.

Development of cancer

This series of three diagrams shows the development of cancer in epithelial cells. In all three diagrams, layers of epithelial tissue cover a generic underlying tissue. In the first diagram, an injury kills a section of the epithelial cells. In the second image, new epithelial cells have completely filled in the wounded area. However, cell division is still accelerating. In the lowest diagram, the epithelial cells have continued to divide and have now expanded beyond the original wound area. The group of dividing cells, now called a carcinoma, breaks into the layer of underlying tissue.
Note the change in cell size, nucleus size, and organization in the tissue.

Watch this video to learn more about tumors. What is a tumor?

Cancer treatments vary depending on the disease’s type and stage. Traditional approaches, including surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy, aim to remove or kill rapidly dividing cancer cells, but these strategies have their limitations. Depending on a tumor’s location, for example, cancer surgeons may be unable to remove it. Radiation and chemotherapy are difficult, and it is often impossible to target only the cancer cells. The treatments inevitably destroy healthy tissue as well. To address this, researchers are working on pharmaceuticals that can target specific proteins implicated in cancer-associated molecular pathways.

Chapter review

Inflammation is the classic response of the body to injury and follows a common sequence of events. The area is red, feels warm to the touch, swells, and is painful. Injured cells, mast cells, and resident macrophages release chemical signals that cause vasodilation and fluid leakage in the surrounding tissue. The repair phase includes blood clotting, followed by regeneration of tissue as fibroblasts deposit collagen. Some tissues regenerate more readily than others. Epithelial and connective tissues replace damaged or dead cells from a supply of adult stem cells. Muscle and nervous tissues undergo either slow regeneration or do not repair at all.

Age affects all the tissues and organs of the body. Damaged cells do not regenerate as rapidly as in younger people. Perception of sensation and effectiveness of response are lost in the nervous system. Muscles atrophy, and bones lose mass and become brittle. Collagen decreases in some connective tissue, and joints stiffen.

Watch this video to see a hand heal. Over what period of time do you think these images were taken?

Approximately one month.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Watch this video to learn more about tumors. What is a tumor?

A mass of cancer cells that continue to grow and divide.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!


Emerson, RW. Old age. Atlantic. 1862 [cited 2012 Dec 4]; 9(51):134–140.

Questions & Answers

What is metatarsal
Ndotenyin Reply
bone of the foot is known as metatarsal
yes 👆 right
metatarsal (foot bone).....👍
the term "mental" pertain to which of the following a. chin b.navel c. ear d. nose e. skull
cris Reply
mental chin nerve
e. skull
e. skull
It's not skull but chin
what are the three many components of the lymphatic system?
Milica Reply
those are...... organ, tissue and blood capillary or vessals
anatomical terms and use them appropriatly in the language of anatomy of anterior body landmarks
Teody Reply
what is human anatomy?
rascal Reply
lts stady structured human body's
what is the study of how the body functions?
What is human anatomy
human antomy is the body of structure
what is abdomipelvic cavity?
david Reply
Includes all organs within the abdomen(stomach,intestines) and those from the pelvic region hence the name... abdomipelvic
where can we find the short bones
Chidi Reply
Carpal bones are examples of short bones
what is blood supply
on upper limb and lower limb
carpal bones
during pregnancy which would more increase size the mothers abdominal or pelvic cavity?
Nurmalyn Reply
pelvic cavity I think
What is anatomical position
@ Nwoye... when standing erect, feet parallel, arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward
define the main directional terms of the body
cris Reply
during physical exercise respiratory rate increace two student are discussing the mechanisms involved. student A claim they are positive feedback and student B claim negative feedback do you agree with student A or B and why
what is the physiology of circulation
please I mean the physiology of criculation
blood flow refers to the movement of blood through the vessels from arteries to the capillaries and then to the veins
during pregnancy, which would more size the mother's abdominal or pelvic cavity? explain
cris Reply
list and define the three plane of devision of the body
complete the following statements using correct directional terms for human being. 1. the navel is________to the nose 2. the heart is______to the breastbone(sternum) 3 the ankle is______to the knee 4 the ear is______to the eyes.
1. superior 2. posterior 3. superior 4. lateral
anterior fuerior
name the system of the body and its function
cris Reply
11 system are human body 1.integumentary system 2. skeletal system 3. muscular system 4. nervous system 5. endocrine system 6. cardiovascular system 7. lymphatic system 8. respiratory system 9. digestive system 10. urinary system 11. reproductive system male and female.
during pregnancy, which would more size the mother's abdominal or pelvic cavity? explain
how the body maintain hormeostasis in terms of bloodglucose level
cris Reply
It releases hormones from the pancreas insulin and glucagon
why human blood pressure high
amin Reply
fear, anxiety, sickness
why in mothers womb the foetus head is in anus direction?
As it seems the position downside n if we did such position thn soon we got vomiting then how foetus stay in downward position long time?
What is red blood cell
A type of blood cell that is made in the bone marrow and found in the blood. Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. Checking the number of red blood cells in the blood is usually part of a complete blood cell (CBC) test. It
red blood cell are the most numerous blood cells.they comprise about 99% of all blood cells red blood cells are non nucleated it has red colour due to present to hemoglobin.
Thanks for the answers
how will you promote quality of life in ptb patient using the 14 basic needs and 21 nursing problems?
rOx Reply

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