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Random segregation

This diagram shows the genetics experiment conducted by Mendel. The top panel shows the offspring from first generation cross and the bottom panel shows the offspring from the second generation cross.
In the formation of gametes, it is equally likely that either one of a pair alleles from one parent will be passed on to the offspring. This figure follows the possible combinations of alleles through two generations following a first-generation cross of homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive parents. The recessive phenotype, which is masked in the second generation, has a 1 in 4, or 25 percent, chance of reappearing in the third generation.

Mendel’s observation of pea plants also included many crosses that involved multiple traits, which prompted him to formulate the principle of independent assortment. The law states that the members of one pair of genes (alleles) from a parent will sort independently from other pairs of genes during the formation of gametes. Applied to pea plants, that means that the alleles associated with the different traits of the plant, such as color, height, or seed type, will sort independently of one another. This holds true except when two alleles happen to be located close to one other on the same chromosome. Independent assortment provides for a great degree of diversity in offspring.

Mendelian genetics represent the fundamentals of inheritance, but there are two important qualifiers to consider when applying Mendel’s findings to inheritance studies in humans. First, as we’ve already noted, not all genes are inherited in a dominant–recessive pattern. Although all diploid individuals have two alleles for every gene, allele pairs may interact to create several types of inheritance patterns, including incomplete dominance and codominance.

Secondly, Mendel performed his studies using thousands of pea plants. He was able to identify a 3:1 phenotypic ratio in second-generation offspring because his large sample size overcame the influence of variability resulting from chance. In contrast, no human couple has ever had thousands of children. If we know that a man and woman are both heterozygous for a recessive genetic disorder, we would predict that one in every four of their children would be affected by the disease. In real life, however, the influence of chance could change that ratio significantly. For example, if a man and a woman are both heterozygous for cystic fibrosis, a recessive genetic disorder that is expressed only when the individual has two defective alleles, we would expect one in four of their children to have cystic fibrosis. However, it is entirely possible for them to have seven children, none of whom is affected, or for them to have two children, both of whom are affected. For each individual child, the presence or absence of a single gene disorder depends on which alleles that child inherits from his or her parents.

Autosomal dominant inheritance

In the case of cystic fibrosis, the disorder is recessive to the normal phenotype. However, a genetic abnormality may be dominant to the normal phenotype. When the dominant allele is located on one of the 22 pairs of autosomes (non-sex chromosomes), we refer to its inheritance pattern as autosomal dominant    . An example of an autosomal dominant disorder is neurofibromatosis type I, a disease that induces tumor formation within the nervous system that leads to skin and skeletal deformities. Consider a couple in which one parent is heterozygous for this disorder (and who therefore has neurofibromatosis), Nn , and one parent is homozygous for the normal gene, nn . The heterozygous parent would have a 50 percent chance of passing the dominant allele for this disorder to his or her offspring, and the homozygous parent would always pass the normal allele. Therefore, four possible offspring genotypes are equally likely to occur: Nn , Nn , nn , and nn . That is, every child of this couple would have a 50 percent chance of inheriting neurofibromatosis. This inheritance pattern is shown in [link] , in a form called a Punnett square    , named after its creator, the British geneticist Reginald Punnett.

Questions & Answers

hello what's the topic
Parongu Reply
hello what's the top
Parongu
hello what's the top
Parongu
I don't know man
Silver
musah was admitted to your ward yesterday with traumatic amputation of the right thump . he complained this morning that he has not passed enough urine. Questions. 1) will you consider his complain to be pathological or physiological?. 2) in less than three sentences, justify your opinion. 3) Apply your understanding of the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone system to explain the factors and mechanisms accounting for his complains.
Ellen Reply
the mineral salt which break up a large portion of bone tissue is
Aurora Reply
calcium
Calcium
Sawda
please I need help. musah was admitted to your ward yesterday with traumatic amputation of the right thump. he complained this morning that he has not passed enough urine. Questions. 1). will you consider his complain to be pathological or physiological?.
Ellen
2). In less than three sentences, justify your opinion.
Ellen
Physiological
Ruth
cholesterol and triglycerides in simplest terms are fats (lipid) found in blood
Roy Reply
calcium is important for bone density and development. it also helps for safe / normal blood clotting, blood circulation to and from the heart, and muscle movement
Roy
what is muscle tissue
Rifat Reply
the muscle tissue is one of the 4 basic tissues in our body and is responsible for movement of our body
What Is difference between Ovary and Ovum
Sawda
ovary is female reproductive organ while ovum is a female gamete formed from ovary
Ubaidah
Thank You
Sawda
What Is Cholesterol and Triglycerides
Sawda
the mineral salt which break up a large portion of bone tissue
Aurora
in simple way muscle tissue is responsible for movement of our body.
Wellington
Hi Be Home Be safe , how are things doing hope all is well
Natarajan Reply
3 longitudinal bands of smooth muscles found in large intestines
Jamia
what's is sutures
Nimeshka Reply
what would I like to know
Roy Reply
anything u can tell me
Roy
anatomy mins
Manish
when two or more bones meet.
Joseph
Joints
Anita
I am interested in learning but it is a little threatening corona virus covid 19
Samnang Reply
I don't know about Corona virus
Vicky
what would you like to know?
Mbasa
what is a peripheral protien
Ayesha Reply
actually its located in between the lipid layer, it does not specify if it's closer to the inside or the outside of the cell
Justin
It is protein found in lipid bilayer but found attached with Cytoplasm aspect
Jamal
what are the collection of blood.?
sunshine Reply
Effect of exercise on different body systems?
Rania Reply
what is ambroylogy
kashif Reply
embryology..is the biological studing of embryos
Ava
I know biological study but embryology mean any pic, example?
kashif
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b6/Comparative_embryology_of_the_vertebrates%3B_with_2057_drawings_and_photos._grouped_as_380_illus_%281953%29_%2820482505100%29.jpg
Ava
I like to learn about medical and more
Samnang
what is the function of the blood
Yolanda Reply
Transporting of oxygen,fighting against germs, forms clotting ,distribution of nutrients and minerals through out the body ,
Nimco
Transportation of gases such as oxygen and water blance and carrei metabolites to the exit organ and Acid base equilibrium and clotting blood and Immune
Jamal
What are Gross and microscopicAnatomy
Waiswa Reply
study of the internal structures of a human being
Niyi
gross anatomy is the study of body parts that can be seen with our naked eyes while micro anatomy involves the study of body parts that cannot be seen with our naked eyes but with the aid of a microscope
Oppong
gross means examination of specimen or tissue with bare (unaided ) eye while microscopic means examination of same with the help of microscope
Jamia

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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