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Disorders of the…

Development of the embryo

In the vast majority of ectopic pregnancies, the embryo does not complete its journey to the uterus and implants in the uterine tube, referred to as a tubal pregnancy. However, there are also ovarian ectopic pregnancies (in which the egg never left the ovary) and abdominal ectopic pregnancies (in which an egg was “lost” to the abdominal cavity during the transfer from ovary to uterine tube, or in which an embryo from a tubal pregnancy re-implanted in the abdomen). Once in the abdominal cavity, an embryo can implant into any well-vascularized structure—the rectouterine cavity (Douglas’ pouch), the mesentery of the intestines, and the greater omentum are some common sites.

Tubal pregnancies can be caused by scar tissue within the tube following a sexually transmitted bacterial infection. The scar tissue impedes the progress of the embryo into the uterus—in some cases “snagging” the embryo and, in other cases, blocking the tube completely. Approximately one half of tubal pregnancies resolve spontaneously. Implantation in a uterine tube causes bleeding, which appears to stimulate smooth muscle contractions and expulsion of the embryo. In the remaining cases, medical or surgical intervention is necessary. If an ectopic pregnancy is detected early, the embryo’s development can be arrested by the administration of the cytotoxic drug methotrexate, which inhibits the metabolism of folic acid. If diagnosis is late and the uterine tube is already ruptured, surgical repair is essential.

Even if the embryo has successfully found its way to the uterus, it does not always implant in an optimal location (the fundus or the posterior wall of the uterus). Placenta previa can result if an embryo implants close to the internal os of the uterus (the internal opening of the cervix). As the fetus grows, the placenta can partially or completely cover the opening of the cervix ( [link] ). Although it occurs in only 0.5 percent of pregnancies, placenta previa is the leading cause of antepartum hemorrhage (profuse vaginal bleeding after week 24 of pregnancy but prior to childbirth).

Placenta previa

The left panel of this image shows the normal location of the placenta and the right panel shows the location of the placenta in placenta previa.
An embryo that implants too close to the opening of the cervix can lead to placenta previa, a condition in which the placenta partially or completely covers the cervix.

Embryonic membranes

During the second week of development, with the embryo implanted in the uterus, cells within the blastocyst start to organize into layers. Some grow to form the extra-embryonic membranes needed to support and protect the growing embryo: the amnion, the yolk sac, the allantois, and the chorion.

At the beginning of the second week, the cells of the inner cell mass form into a two-layered disc of embryonic cells, and a space—the amniotic cavity    —opens up between it and the trophoblast ( [link] ). Cells from the upper layer of the disc (the epiblast    ) extend around the amniotic cavity, creating a membranous sac that forms into the amnion    by the end of the second week. The amnion fills with amniotic fluid and eventually grows to surround the embryo. Early in development, amniotic fluid consists almost entirely of a filtrate of maternal plasma, but as the kidneys of the fetus begin to function at approximately the eighth week, they add urine to the volume of amniotic fluid. Floating within the amniotic fluid, the embryo—and later, the fetus—is protected from trauma and rapid temperature changes. It can move freely within the fluid and can prepare for swallowing and breathing out of the uterus.

Questions & Answers

how is blood pressure measured
Ryan Reply
structure of the cell
BELLO Reply
what do u want to know about the structure of the cell?
Ebeneezer
Process of bone healing
Thelma Reply
The fractured bones are brought closer (reduction of fracture). the fibroblast cells at broken ends divide rapidly and secrete collagen that forms collar of callus. The callus holds the bones together which slowly clacifies (remodelling) and later replaced by bone tissue.
Biplav
what is the name of the two subunits of L chain of a antibody structure
Arshi Reply
The pituitary gland lies in the
Aamir Reply
bony cavity,sella tursica
Arshi
how does endochrondral ossification start in short bones?
Steven Reply
the chondroblast cells forms a cartilaginous bone model which becomes calcified in mid region and is innervated by perosteal capillaries. These capillaris replaces cartilages with bone tissue.
Biplav
define negative feedback
Oageng
mechanism that cause supression of another process. eg. the secretion of one hormone can supress the other hormone secretion.
Biplav
simply a self regulating mechanism which retun a deviated parameter to normal condition
Japhar
secretion of hormones get supressed by other hormone secretion
Kodeck
by like 😂😂😂😂
Zozo
what is RH blood group
kuukyile Reply
It is a type of system for classifying blood groups according to the presence or absence of the Rh antigen.
Rakshith
What is the most important organ in the human body?
Gbemi Reply
the heart
Phodiso
or brain
Phodiso
Why?
Gbemi
heart
Kelly
the brain specifically is referred to as the control centre ..all nerve impulses are send to the brain which stimulates other specific parts of the body
Phodiso
please if l am Blood group B+ can l marry a lady with O- blood group?
kuukyile
structure of a serous membrane
Ziyanda Reply
are you asking?
Isa
yes
MOHD
In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth tissue membrane consisting of two layers of mesothelium, which secrete serous fluid. The inner layer that covers organs (viscera) in body cavities is called the visceral membrane. A second layer of epithelial cells of the serous membrane, called th
Isa
The two layers of serous membranes are named parietal and visceral. Between the two layers is a thin fluid filled space.[2] The fluid is produced by the serous membranes and stays between the two layers to reduce friction between the walls of the cavities and the internal organs when they move with
Isa
a continuation from the 1st one:: A second layer of epithelial cells of the serous membrane, called the parietal layer, lines the body wall. Between the two layers is a potential space, mostly empty except for a few milliliters of lubricating serous fluid that is secreted by the two serous membranes
Isa
Lubricated secretion of skin is called sebum
Jazil
haematopoietic
oyewale
what is the greater tronchanter?
Phodiso
the greater trochanter is  femur is a large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence and a is a part of the system of the skeleton
Jessie
Thanks Jessie...
Phodiso
what is the easiest way to learn labels of Anatomical structures?
Phodiso
what's the anatomical plan of the horse lung
musa
Name the two phases of metabolism
Grace Reply
reproduction and growth
Zozo
how about anabolism and catabolism?
Japhar
In Simply Anabolism means formation... Catabolism means breakdown
Jazil
two phases of reproductio?
Japhar
Anabolism indicates potential & catabolism potential converts to kinetic
Doctor
Name the most important life process in the human body in terms of anatomy and physiology
Grace
Nervous system
Nimco
Every system is important for body functions
Jazil
what is the difference between the functions of the adhesion belt and the desmosomes?
Mason Reply
what are the derivatives of the germ layer?
Miriam Reply
zygote
Zozo
Pls explain the atlas of the cervical vertebral column
Ifunanya Reply
why does the material not allow in mri
Simran Reply
what do you mean 'mri'
Nimco
short for magnetic resonance imaging. "the researchers used MRI to record the brain activity" a medical examination performed using magnetic resonance imaging. "he's having an MRI to determine the extent of the injury" an image obtained by magnetic resonance imaging. "after looking at the MRI, the d
Riyaz
what is the meaning of sutures
Ibrahim Reply
i do not know
Nimo
immovable joints btn two bones.eg the skull bones
Japhar
Really,it's true
Nimco
Sutures are immovable junction between two bones e.g those of the skull
Surphy

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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