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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the structure and function of the organs of the male reproductive system
  • Describe the structure and function of the sperm cell
  • Explain the events during spermatogenesis that produce haploid sperm from diploid cells
  • Identify the importance of testosterone in male reproductive function

Unique for its role in human reproduction, a gamete    is a specialized sex cell carrying 23 chromosomes—one half the number in body cells. At fertilization, the chromosomes in one male gamete, called a sperm    (or spermatozoon), combine with the chromosomes in one female gamete, called an oocyte. The function of the male reproductive system ( [link] ) is to produce sperm and transfer them to the female reproductive tract. The paired testes are a crucial component in this process, as they produce both sperm and androgens, the hormones that support male reproductive physiology. In humans, the most important male androgen is testosterone. Several accessory organs and ducts aid the process of sperm maturation and transport the sperm and other seminal components to the penis, which delivers sperm to the female reproductive tract. In this section, we examine each of these different structures, and discuss the process of sperm production and transport.

Male reproductive system

This figure shows the different organs in the male reproductive system. The top panel shows the side view of a man and an uncircumcised and a circumcised penis. The bottom panel shows the lateral view of the male reproductive system and the major parts are labeled.
The structures of the male reproductive system include the testes, the epididymides, the penis, and the ducts and glands that produce and carry semen. Sperm exit the scrotum through the ductus deferens, which is bundled in the spermatic cord. The seminal vesicles and prostate gland add fluids to the sperm to create semen.

Scrotum

The testes are located in a skin-covered, highly pigmented, muscular sack called the scrotum    that extends from the body behind the penis (see [link] ). This location is important in sperm production, which occurs within the testes, and proceeds more efficiently when the testes are kept 2 to 4°C below core body temperature.

The dartos muscle makes up the subcutaneous muscle layer of the scrotum ( [link] ). It continues internally to make up the scrotal septum, a wall that divides the scrotum into two compartments, each housing one testis. Descending from the internal oblique muscle of the abdominal wall are the two cremaster muscles, which cover each testis like a muscular net. By contracting simultaneously, the dartos and cremaster muscles can elevate the testes in cold weather (or water), moving the testes closer to the body and decreasing the surface area of the scrotum to retain heat. Alternatively, as the environmental temperature increases, the scrotum relaxes, moving the testes farther from the body core and increasing scrotal surface area, which promotes heat loss. Externally, the scrotum has a raised medial thickening on the surface called the raphae.

The scrotum and testes

This figure shows the scrotum and testes. The left panel shows the external view of the scrotum, the middle panel shows the muscle layer and the right panel shows the deep tissues of the scrotum.
This anterior view shows the structures of the scrotum and testes.

Testes

The testes    (singular = testis) are the male gonads    —that is, the male reproductive organs. They produce both sperm and androgens, such as testosterone, and are active throughout the reproductive lifespan of the male.

Questions & Answers

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shiv
inbreeding is mating or breeding with organism that are genetically related
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Pankaj
inner breeding is breeding among the same species of organisms
Anna
*inbreeding
Anna
yes same speciesor same genetic organism
shiv
description of the menstruation cycle
Namyalo Reply
explain the menstruation cycle
Namyalo
explain the menstrual cycle
Ugo
menstrual cycle is came due to FSH and LH
shiv
fsh
Ndowmi
Description of menestraul cycle
Amos Reply
what is the anatomy
FAKE Reply
Anatomy is study of structure of organs.
Sneha
thanks
FAKE
The scientific study of the structure of human or animal bodies.
FAKE
I was confused as to which one would be right and I asked
FAKE
My answer and you answer both are right.
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isaiah
umesh. rede
Rede
what is heart and long type answer
Lalita Reply
its a organ in the body
ay
describe about hear chambers.. valves.. arteries.. veins.. circulation.. inferior/superior venacava, aorta., tricuspid valve, mitral valve. pulmonary artery/vein, how oxigenation occur,systolic presure diastolic pressure.. stroke volume,cardiac output, ets.. heart located in which place, describe it
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autonomic functions took over
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What did they take over?
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Esther Reply
what is the average volume of blood in men
Esther
5to6liter
Sarita
5to6liter dt
Sarita
umesh. rede
Rede
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killer
^of
chieng
The study of the structure or internal workings of something. "Machiavelli's anatomy 
Eric
post. communi. artey... this may be true 70% hope correct
vikash Reply
what is the strongest muscle in the human body?
Robiam Reply
masseter muscles
Om
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Sarita
Kidneys have direct effect on which
The function the loop
function of the loop?
Eric
the function of the loop of henle is to increase surface area for reasorbtion.
Conan
what is an atom and it's functions
Jany
An atom is the basic building block of matter.
Eric
which is the largest digestive gland in our body
Shubu
stomach
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pisiform
Chulit
how many found in the head
obakunmi
4
ayesha
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Sanjith
22
Sanjith
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the smallest bone is stapes in the ear
Isaac
smallest bone in human body is stapes or stirrup present in the middle ear ..
Om
stapes yes
Robiam
blood work and purification and it leads to cardiac systen
vikash
explain function of kidney
Noel Reply
filtration
Naqash
Secretagogue hormones
Sa
Organising water
Sa
hi
Jany
they help in the reproduction of sperms
Jany
Their main job is to cleanse the blood of toxins and transform the waste into urine. The kidney have several functions though. I think it is important to know them, but not in depth. But to truly understand the kindney's over all importance.
Eric
I meant to say the kidneys have.
Eric
how kidney help in reprdution of sperms?
Amir
the basic and functinal unit of kidney is Nephron
Sanjith
what us the name of the longest bone in the body
Ohuche Reply
femur
Zaini
femur
AKHILA

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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