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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • List specific transport mechanisms occurring in different parts of the nephron, including active transport, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and passive electrochemical gradients
  • List the different membrane proteins of the nephron, including channels, transporters, and ATPase pumps
  • Compare and contrast passive and active tubular reabsorption
  • Explain why the differential permeability or impermeability of specific sections of the nephron tubules is necessary for urine formation
  • Describe how and where water, organic compounds, and ions are reabsorbed in the nephron
  • Explain the role of the loop of Henle, the vasa recta, and the countercurrent multiplication mechanisms in the concentration of urine
  • List the locations in the nephron where tubular secretion occurs

With up to 180 liters per day passing through the nephrons of the kidney, it is quite obvious that most of that fluid and its contents must be reabsorbed. That recovery occurs in the PCT, loop of Henle, DCT, and the collecting ducts ( [link] and [link] ). Various portions of the nephron differ in their capacity to reabsorb water and specific solutes. While much of the reabsorption and secretion occur passively based on concentration gradients, the amount of water that is reabsorbed or lost is tightly regulated. This control is exerted directly by ADH and aldosterone, and indirectly by renin. Most water is recovered in the PCT, loop of Henle, and DCT. About 10 percent (about 18 L) reaches the collecting ducts. The collecting ducts, under the influence of ADH, can recover almost all of the water passing through them, in cases of dehydration, or almost none of the water, in cases of over-hydration.

Locations of secretion and reabsorption in the nephron

This diagram shows the different ions and chemicals that are secreted and reabsorbed along the nephron. Arrows show the direction of the movement of the substance.
Substances Secreted or Reabsorbed in the Nephron and Their Locations
Substance PCT Loop of Henle DCT Collecting ducts
Glucose Almost 100 percent reabsorbed; secondary active transport with Na +
Oligopeptides, proteins, amino acids Almost 100 percent reabsorbed; symport with Na +
Vitamins Reabsorbed
Lactate Reabsorbed
Creatinine Secreted
Urea 50 percent reabsorbed by diffusion; also secreted Secretion, diffusion in descending limb Reabsorption in medullary collecting ducts; diffusion
Sodium 65 percent actively reabsorbed 25 percent reabsorbed in thick ascending limb; active transport 5 percent reabsorbed; active 5 percent reabsorbed, stimulated by aldosterone; active
Chloride Reabsorbed, symport with Na + , diffusion Reabsorbed in thin and thick ascending limb; diffusion in ascending limb Reabsorbed; diffusion Reabsorbed; symport
Water 67 percent reabsorbed osmotically with solutes 15 percent reabsorbed in descending limb; osmosis 8 percent reabsorbed if ADH; osmosis Variable amounts reabsorbed, controlled by ADH, osmosis
Bicarbonate 80–90 percent symport reabsorption with Na + Reabsorbed, symport with Na + and antiport with Cl ; in ascending limb Reabsorbed antiport with Cl
H + Secreted; diffusion Secreted; active Secreted; active
NH 4 + Secreted; diffusion Secreted; diffusion Secreted; diffusion
HCO 3 Reabsorbed; diffusion Reabsorbed; diffusion in ascending limb Reabsorbed; diffusion Reabsorbed; antiport with Na +
Some drugs Secreted Secreted; active Secreted; active
Potassium 65 percent reabsorbed; diffusion 20 percent reabsorbed in thick ascending limb; symport Secreted; active Secretion controlled by aldosterone; active
Calcium Reabsorbed; diffusion Reabsorbed in thick ascending limb; diffusion Reabsorbed if parathyroid hormone present; active
Magnesium Reabsorbed; diffusion Reabsorbed in thick ascending limb; diffusion Reabsorbed
Phosphate 85 percent reabsorbed, inhibited by parathyroid hormone, diffusion Reabsorbed; diffusion

Questions & Answers

what is oesophagus?
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oesophagus also known as food pip
ABDULLAH
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Beryl Reply
what's the meaning of polar?
Jackson Reply
Sign of anaemia or whitish color or Hgb luck
Kassahn
Are you talking of Polar anaemia or what, because the word polar doesnt have one meaning
Kingsley
what are the three types of adrenocorticoids hormones
Lubega Reply
glucocorticoids mineralocorticoid and catecholamines
Kartik
what is polar and non-polar
Jackson Reply
polar unequal share of electron while non polar is equal share
Quran
why are phosphate molecules negatively charged?
Jackson Reply
Bocz of unpaired elections
Javid
because of unpaired electrons
ABDULLAH
what are amphipathic molecules?
Jackson Reply
Amphipathic molecules are molecules with both polar and non polar regions
Mohammed
How does the male organ develop
MADUBULA Reply
Hw does the male organ develop
MADUBULA
Review your questions madam
Aliyu
what is anaphylaxis?
Rugut Reply
it is an imagency condition resulting from abnormal and immediate alagic response to a substance to which the body has become intensively sensitized
Lubega
different between drug and medicine
ado Reply
drugs have no medical application (cocaine, heroin, crystal meth). medicine have medical purpose (fentanyl, albuterol, aspirin, ect ect)
Jordan
medicine is a substance or preparation used in treating disease,drug is chemical compound medicine are drugs but all drugs are not medicines
Wafa
assalam o alaikum
Sidra
what happen to ECF and ICF regarding to OEDEMA
Zwanga Reply
what are the smooth muscles of the heart
Sintung Reply
stomach
Sidra
identify external features of kidney
saba Reply
kidney weight on males?
saba
and female ?
saba
Sle full name & treatment
Samim
Syplymic lupw erythematous
Samim
blood supply to spleen ?
saba
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saba
130 on male
saba
130g on male
saba
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no 130grms on male
saba
mbbs
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Shahab
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saba
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saba
Define cranial nerves with oder
Javid
O-olfactory O-optic O-occumulator T-trochlear T-trigemenal A-abducent F-facial A-auditory G-glossopharyngeal V-vagus A-acessory
Aniee
opd mean?
Shahab
out patient department
mahesh
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Shahab
Ty Aniee singh
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Areeej
Read KD Tripathi book of Pharmacology.
mayank
Hello
mayank
CT Scan means
Sintung
what's health?
Sintung
hello
Philip
hi
Sintung
CT means - computerized tomography
Vivek
connective tissue
Dee
they link some body organs
Sintung
Difference between drug and medicine
Javid
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saba
what is tomography?
Gideon
tomography ☝
shahid
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Gideon
how hemolytic anemia cause due to gas gangrene?
Huma Reply
what's gangrene?
Sidra
why retro abdominal region called or named "flank "?
Huma Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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