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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the structures of the mouth, including its three accessory digestive organs
  • Group the 32 adult teeth according to name, location, and function
  • Describe the process of swallowing, including the roles of the tongue, upper esophageal sphincter, and epiglottis
  • Trace the pathway food follows from ingestion into the mouth through release into the stomach

In this section, you will examine the anatomy and functions of the three main organs of the upper alimentary canal—the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus—as well as three associated accessory organs—the tongue, salivary glands, and teeth.

The mouth

The cheeks, tongue, and palate frame the mouth, which is also called the oral cavity    (or buccal cavity). The structures of the mouth are illustrated in [link] .

At the entrance to the mouth are the lips, or labia (singular = labium). Their outer covering is skin, which transitions to a mucous membrane in the mouth proper. Lips are very vascular with a thin layer of keratin; hence, the reason they are "red." They have a huge representation on the cerebral cortex, which probably explains the human fascination with kissing! The lips cover the orbicularis oris muscle, which regulates what comes in and goes out of the mouth. The labial frenulum    is a midline fold of mucous membrane that attaches the inner surface of each lip to the gum. The cheeks make up the oral cavity’s sidewalls. While their outer covering is skin, their inner covering is mucous membrane. This membrane is made up of non-keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium. Between the skin and mucous membranes are connective tissue and buccinator muscles. The next time you eat some food, notice how the buccinator muscles in your cheeks and the orbicularis oris muscle in your lips contract, helping you keep the food from falling out of your mouth. Additionally, notice how these muscles work when you are speaking.

The pocket-like part of the mouth that is framed on the inside by the gums and teeth, and on the outside by the cheeks and lips is called the oral vestibule    . Moving farther into the mouth, the opening between the oral cavity and throat (oropharynx) is called the fauces    (like the kitchen "faucet"). The main open area of the mouth, or oral cavity proper, runs from the gums and teeth to the fauces.

When you are chewing, you do not find it difficult to breathe simultaneously. The next time you have food in your mouth, notice how the arched shape of the roof of your mouth allows you to handle both digestion and respiration at the same time. This arch is called the palate. The anterior region of the palate serves as a wall (or septum) between the oral and nasal cavities as well as a rigid shelf against which the tongue can push food. It is created by the maxillary and palatine bones of the skull and, given its bony structure, is known as the hard palate. If you run your tongue along the roof of your mouth, you’ll notice that the hard palate ends in the posterior oral cavity, and the tissue becomes fleshier. This part of the palate, known as the soft palate    , is composed mainly of skeletal muscle. You can therefore manipulate, subconsciously, the soft palate—for instance, to yawn, swallow, or sing (see [link] ).

Questions & Answers

what is oesophagus?
Bhavani Reply
oesophagus also known as food pip
ABDULLAH
What is the meaning of dissection
Beryl Reply
what's the meaning of polar?
Jackson Reply
Sign of anaemia or whitish color or Hgb luck
Kassahn
Are you talking of Polar anaemia or what, because the word polar doesnt have one meaning
Kingsley
what are the three types of adrenocorticoids hormones
Lubega Reply
glucocorticoids mineralocorticoid and catecholamines
Kartik
what is polar and non-polar
Jackson Reply
polar unequal share of electron while non polar is equal share
Quran
why are phosphate molecules negatively charged?
Jackson Reply
Bocz of unpaired elections
Javid
because of unpaired electrons
ABDULLAH
what are amphipathic molecules?
Jackson Reply
Amphipathic molecules are molecules with both polar and non polar regions
Mohammed
How does the male organ develop
MADUBULA Reply
Hw does the male organ develop
MADUBULA
Review your questions madam
Aliyu
what is anaphylaxis?
Rugut Reply
it is an imagency condition resulting from abnormal and immediate alagic response to a substance to which the body has become intensively sensitized
Lubega
different between drug and medicine
ado Reply
drugs have no medical application (cocaine, heroin, crystal meth). medicine have medical purpose (fentanyl, albuterol, aspirin, ect ect)
Jordan
medicine is a substance or preparation used in treating disease,drug is chemical compound medicine are drugs but all drugs are not medicines
Wafa
assalam o alaikum
Sidra
what happen to ECF and ICF regarding to OEDEMA
Zwanga Reply
what are the smooth muscles of the heart
Sintung Reply
stomach
Sidra
identify external features of kidney
saba Reply
kidney weight on males?
saba
and female ?
saba
Sle full name & treatment
Samim
Syplymic lupw erythematous
Samim
blood supply to spleen ?
saba
g..
saba
ya 135 g females
saba
130 on male
saba
130g on male
saba
g samim
saba
no 130grms on male
saba
mbbs
saba
good saba khan
Shahab
Tom kya krti ho st?
saba
your name?
saba
ok
saba
tum kya krti ho? muskan
saba
ok
saba
good muskan
Shahab
ok bye I m studying
saba
Define cranial nerves with oder
Javid
O-olfactory O-optic O-occumulator T-trochlear T-trigemenal A-abducent F-facial A-auditory G-glossopharyngeal V-vagus A-acessory
Aniee
opd mean?
Shahab
out patient department
mahesh
thnxx
Shahab
Ty Aniee singh
Javid
Ap sb us book s parhte h
Areeej
Read KD Tripathi book of Pharmacology.
mayank
Hello
mayank
CT Scan means
Sintung
what's health?
Sintung
hello
Philip
hi
Sintung
CT means - computerized tomography
Vivek
connective tissue
Dee
they link some body organs
Sintung
Difference between drug and medicine
Javid
hiii muskan
saba
what is tomography?
Gideon
tomography ☝
shahid
yes
Gideon
how hemolytic anemia cause due to gas gangrene?
Huma Reply
what's gangrene?
Sidra
why retro abdominal region called or named "flank "?
Huma Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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