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The coronary arteries encircle the heart, forming a ring-like structure that divides into the next level of branches that supplies blood to the heart tissues. (Seek additional content for more detail on cardiac circulation.)

Aortic arch branches

There are three major branches of the aortic arch: the brachiocephalic artery, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian (literally “under the clavicle”) artery. As you would expect based upon proximity to the heart, each of these vessels is classified as an elastic artery.

The brachiocephalic artery is located only on the right side of the body; there is no corresponding artery on the left. The brachiocephalic artery branches into the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery. The left subclavian and left common carotid arteries arise independently from the aortic arch but otherwise follow a similar pattern and distribution to the corresponding arteries on the right side (see [link] ).

Each subclavian artery    supplies blood to the arms, chest, shoulders, back, and central nervous system. It then gives rise to three major branches: the internal thoracic artery, the vertebral artery, and the thyrocervical artery. The internal thoracic artery    , or mammary artery, supplies blood to the thymus, the pericardium of the heart, and the anterior chest wall. The vertebral artery    passes through the vertebral foramen in the cervical vertebrae and then through the foramen magnum into the cranial cavity to supply blood to the brain and spinal cord. The paired vertebral arteries join together to form the large basilar artery at the base of the medulla oblongata. This is an example of an anastomosis. The subclavian artery also gives rise to the thyrocervical artery    that provides blood to the thyroid, the cervical region of the neck, and the upper back and shoulder.

The common carotid artery    divides into internal and external carotid arteries. The right common carotid artery arises from the brachiocephalic artery and the left common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch. The external carotid artery    supplies blood to numerous structures within the face, lower jaw, neck, esophagus, and larynx. These branches include the lingual, facial, occipital, maxillary, and superficial temporal arteries. The internal carotid artery    initially forms an expansion known as the carotid sinus, containing the carotid baroreceptors and chemoreceptors. Like their counterparts in the aortic sinuses, the information provided by these receptors is critical to maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis (see [link] ).

The internal carotid arteries along with the vertebral arteries are the two primary suppliers of blood to the human brain. Given the central role and vital importance of the brain to life, it is critical that blood supply to this organ remains uninterrupted. Recall that blood flow to the brain is remarkably constant, with approximately 20 percent of blood flow directed to this organ at any given time. When blood flow is interrupted, even for just a few seconds, a transient ischemic attack (TIA)    , or mini-stroke, may occur, resulting in loss of consciousness or temporary loss of neurological function. In some cases, the damage may be permanent. Loss of blood flow for longer periods, typically between 3 and 4 minutes, will likely produce irreversible brain damage or a stroke, also called a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)    . The locations of the arteries in the brain not only provide blood flow to the brain tissue but also prevent interruption in the flow of blood. Both the carotid and vertebral arteries branch once they enter the cranial cavity, and some of these branches form a structure known as the arterial circle    (or circle of Willis    ), an anastomosis that is remarkably like a traffic circle that sends off branches (in this case, arterial branches to the brain). As a rule, branches to the anterior portion of the cerebrum are normally fed by the internal carotid arteries; the remainder of the brain receives blood flow from branches associated with the vertebral arteries.

Questions & Answers

If a molecule can only pass through a membrane with the assistance of a membrane protein, but the direction of its travel is controlled only by its concentration, the process is called?
osmosis
chozen
A 52 year old woman turned her head quickly, during a tennis game and suddenly felt a sharp pain in her neck along her upper limb. Physical examination and medical imaging revealed a herniated degenerated IV disc in the cervical region of her vertebral column.
Isaac
a. What probably caused the IV disc herniation? b. What cause IV disc degeneration? c. What are the result of disc degeneration?
Isaac
b
Mirasol
Describe the neural control of erection and ejaculation.
Nana Reply
A 52 year old woman turned her head quickly, during a tennis game and suddenly felt a sharp pain in her neck along her upper limb. Physical examination and medical imaging revealed a herniated degenerated IV disc in the cervical region of her vertebral column. a)What probably caused the IV di
Isaac
a) What probably caused the IV disc herniation? b) What cause IV disc degeneration? c) What are the result of disc degeneration?
Isaac
iv disc herniation compress the nerve cause numbness tingling sensation even paralysis in severe cases...
Khawaja
explain more
DANIELLA Reply
yes
Ramzan
function of skeleton
Josiah Reply
- for movement - blood production by the bone marrow
Daniel
production of calsium and phosphorus
Juma
Shortly after childbirth, a woman consulted her physician about a tender swelling in her perineal region. 8. What fossa related the perineal swelling? 9. Describe what vessel may cause the collection of blood in the fossa after childbirth?
Isaac
what is heart
Subhajit Reply
it is the tissue..which pump blood to the all parts of body
GRAY
the heart is a conical , hollow, muscular organ which works continuously through out the life of a person ,it is about the size of a clenched fist and weighs about 300 grams and also the heart is in the chest just behind the breast bone and between the two lungs
Mary
a hollow muscular organ that pumps blood through the circulatory system by regular contractions
Johnny
is a muscular organ that pumps blood lungs and other body tissues through vessels
Nolosha
Shortly after childbirth, a woman consulted her physician about a tender swelling in her perineal region. 8. What fossa related the perineal swelling? 9. Describe what vessel may cause the collection of blood in the fossa after childbirth?
Isaac
Shortly after childbirth, a woman consulted her physician about a tender swelling in her perineal region. 8. What fossa related the perineal swelling? 9. Describe what vessel may cause the collection of blood in the fossa after childbirth?
Isaac Reply
inguinal fossa femoral vein?
Jeen
if you dont the answer by now you should seek another line of work. as a professor it is my duty to let you know about your lacking.
Arif
branches of brachial plexus
Arooj Reply
musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, axillary, and radial nerves.
Shakerah
Shortly after childbirth, a woman consulted her physician about a tender swelling in her perineal region. a.What fossa related the perineal swelling? b.Describe what vessel may cause the collection of blood in the fossa after childbirth?
Isaac
What is great Auricular nerve?
ZUBAIR Reply
it originates from the cervical plexus that provides sensory innervation to the skin.
Daniel
why it is called Auricular nerve
Amber
is any payment is needed to use this app
Suprith Reply
is it a question?
Samenjo
doubt about this app
Suprith
which lines divide the body into nine quadrant
Julius Reply
nine regions of abdomen can b marked using two horizontal & two vertical lines...the vertical lines are the mid clavicular lines taken from the mid point of each clavicle. the upper horizontal lines is the subcostal line taken from the inferior parts of the lowest costal cartilage...
Khawaja
to get a better understanding for the function
Rashana Reply
anatomy and physiology work closely together
Rashana
anatomy to you about the structure of the while physiology is the the study of the body function
Rashana
what is the difference between negative and positive feedback
Rashana
The key difference bewteen positive and negative feedback is their response to change. Positive feedback amplifies change while negative reduces change.
ladychen
negative feed back produces a response that brings back to normal while positive feed back produces a response that stimulates
Julius
examples of the body structure
Naki Reply
body's structure
Naki
how is it possible
Adum Reply
what is homeostasis please
Ayobami Reply
Homeostasis is the ability of the body to maintain a constant internal environment, regulation factors such as the body's temperature, pH, water balance, blood pressure.
Jude
that is true
Maria
A young man was playing in a hockey game when he was knocked down, he was not wearing a helmet and hit his head on the ground. He momently stunned and said he saw stars. The man’s vision was blurred for approximately 20 seconds. He left to his bench and showed no other sign of injury except tha
Isaac
that he complained of lingering head ached.
Isaac
1.Do you think the person would have a fracture skull? Explain your answer 2What will the lingering headache indicate 3. If you detected clear fluid dipping from the person nose. What do you suspect might be the source of the fluids?
Isaac
if he broke his skull he will have not survied
Maria
1. if there were no other signs of external injury such as blood or bruising around area of impact or areas of the face, then he more than likely didn't fracture his skull 2. lingering headache could indicate a concussion 3. clear fluid dripping from nose would suggest a cerebrospinal fluid leak
Amber
(and fracturing of the skull does not indicate the person would not survive, of course dependant upon the severity of the impact & internal damage caused)
Amber
what is homeostasis
Rashana
function of microvilli
Suprith
it gives the small intestine a wider surface area which helps absorption to take place
Enada
please what is a lymph
Ayobami Reply
lymphoma is a type of cancer
Maria
No.Lymphoma is not any type of cancer.....
Vivek
simple lymph is a tissue fluid less in plasma proteins which produces during tissue filteration...
Khawaja
lymphoma is a lymphatic cancer either Hodgkin's lymphoma & non Hodgkin's lymphoma..
Khawaja
Yes lymphoma is a lymphatic cancer
Loving

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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