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Other plasma solutes

In addition to proteins, plasma contains a wide variety of other substances. These include various electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium ions; dissolved gases, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen; various organic nutrients, such as vitamins, lipids, glucose, and amino acids; and metabolic wastes. All of these nonprotein solutes combined contribute approximately 1 percent to the total volume of plasma.

Major blood components

This table lists the components of blood, the percentage of each component, their site of production, and their major functions.

Career connection

Phlebotomy and medical lab technology

Phlebotomists are professionals trained to draw blood (phleb- = “a blood vessel”; -tomy = “to cut”). When more than a few drops of blood are required, phlebotomists perform a venipuncture, typically of a surface vein in the arm. They perform a capillary stick on a finger, an earlobe, or the heel of an infant when only a small quantity of blood is required. An arterial stick is collected from an artery and used to analyze blood gases. After collection, the blood may be analyzed by medical laboratories or perhaps used for transfusions, donations, or research. While many allied health professionals practice phlebotomy, the American Society of Phlebotomy Technicians issues certificates to individuals passing a national examination, and some large labs and hospitals hire individuals expressly for their skill in phlebotomy.

Medical or clinical laboratories employ a variety of individuals in technical positions:

  • Medical technologists (MT), also known as clinical laboratory technologists (CLT), typically hold a bachelor’s degree and certification from an accredited training program. They perform a wide variety of tests on various body fluids, including blood. The information they provide is essential to the primary care providers in determining a diagnosis and in monitoring the course of a disease and response to treatment.
  • Medical laboratory technicians (MLT) typically have an associate’s degree but may perform duties similar to those of an MT.
  • Medical laboratory assistants (MLA) spend the majority of their time processing samples and carrying out routine assignments within the lab. Clinical training is required, but a degree may not be essential to obtaining a position.

Chapter review

Blood is a fluid connective tissue critical to the transportation of nutrients, gases, and wastes throughout the body; to defend the body against infection and other threats; and to the homeostatic regulation of pH, temperature, and other internal conditions. Blood is composed of formed elements—erythrocytes, leukocytes, and cell fragments called platelets—and a fluid extracellular matrix called plasma. More than 90 percent of plasma is water. The remainder is mostly plasma proteins—mainly albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen—and other dissolved solutes such as glucose, lipids, electrolytes, and dissolved gases. Because of the formed elements and the plasma proteins and other solutes, blood is sticky and more viscous than water. It is also slightly alkaline, and its temperature is slightly higher than normal body temperature.

Visit this site for a list of normal levels established for many of the substances found in a sample of blood. Serum, one of the specimen types included, refers to a sample of plasma after clotting factors have been removed. What types of measurements are given for levels of glucose in the blood?

There are values given for percent saturation, tension, and blood gas, and there are listings for different types of hemoglobin.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

If a molecule can only pass through a membrane with the assistance of a membrane protein, but the direction of its travel is controlled only by its concentration, the process is called?
osmosis
chozen
A 52 year old woman turned her head quickly, during a tennis game and suddenly felt a sharp pain in her neck along her upper limb. Physical examination and medical imaging revealed a herniated degenerated IV disc in the cervical region of her vertebral column.
Isaac
a. What probably caused the IV disc herniation? b. What cause IV disc degeneration? c. What are the result of disc degeneration?
Isaac
b
Mirasol
Describe the neural control of erection and ejaculation.
Nana Reply
A 52 year old woman turned her head quickly, during a tennis game and suddenly felt a sharp pain in her neck along her upper limb. Physical examination and medical imaging revealed a herniated degenerated IV disc in the cervical region of her vertebral column. a)What probably caused the IV di
Isaac
a) What probably caused the IV disc herniation? b) What cause IV disc degeneration? c) What are the result of disc degeneration?
Isaac
iv disc herniation compress the nerve cause numbness tingling sensation even paralysis in severe cases...
Khawaja
explain more
DANIELLA Reply
yes
Ramzan
function of skeleton
Josiah Reply
- for movement - blood production by the bone marrow
Daniel
production of calsium and phosphorus
Juma
Shortly after childbirth, a woman consulted her physician about a tender swelling in her perineal region. 8. What fossa related the perineal swelling? 9. Describe what vessel may cause the collection of blood in the fossa after childbirth?
Isaac
what is heart
Subhajit Reply
it is the tissue..which pump blood to the all parts of body
GRAY
the heart is a conical , hollow, muscular organ which works continuously through out the life of a person ,it is about the size of a clenched fist and weighs about 300 grams and also the heart is in the chest just behind the breast bone and between the two lungs
Mary
a hollow muscular organ that pumps blood through the circulatory system by regular contractions
Johnny
is a muscular organ that pumps blood lungs and other body tissues through vessels
Nolosha
Shortly after childbirth, a woman consulted her physician about a tender swelling in her perineal region. 8. What fossa related the perineal swelling? 9. Describe what vessel may cause the collection of blood in the fossa after childbirth?
Isaac
Shortly after childbirth, a woman consulted her physician about a tender swelling in her perineal region. 8. What fossa related the perineal swelling? 9. Describe what vessel may cause the collection of blood in the fossa after childbirth?
Isaac Reply
inguinal fossa femoral vein?
Jeen
if you dont the answer by now you should seek another line of work. as a professor it is my duty to let you know about your lacking.
Arif
branches of brachial plexus
Arooj Reply
musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, axillary, and radial nerves.
Shakerah
Shortly after childbirth, a woman consulted her physician about a tender swelling in her perineal region. a.What fossa related the perineal swelling? b.Describe what vessel may cause the collection of blood in the fossa after childbirth?
Isaac
What is great Auricular nerve?
ZUBAIR Reply
it originates from the cervical plexus that provides sensory innervation to the skin.
Daniel
why it is called Auricular nerve
Amber
is any payment is needed to use this app
Suprith Reply
is it a question?
Samenjo
doubt about this app
Suprith
which lines divide the body into nine quadrant
Julius Reply
nine regions of abdomen can b marked using two horizontal & two vertical lines...the vertical lines are the mid clavicular lines taken from the mid point of each clavicle. the upper horizontal lines is the subcostal line taken from the inferior parts of the lowest costal cartilage...
Khawaja
to get a better understanding for the function
Rashana Reply
anatomy and physiology work closely together
Rashana
anatomy to you about the structure of the while physiology is the the study of the body function
Rashana
what is the difference between negative and positive feedback
Rashana
The key difference bewteen positive and negative feedback is their response to change. Positive feedback amplifies change while negative reduces change.
ladychen
negative feed back produces a response that brings back to normal while positive feed back produces a response that stimulates
Julius
examples of the body structure
Naki Reply
body's structure
Naki
how is it possible
Adum Reply
what is homeostasis please
Ayobami Reply
Homeostasis is the ability of the body to maintain a constant internal environment, regulation factors such as the body's temperature, pH, water balance, blood pressure.
Jude
that is true
Maria
A young man was playing in a hockey game when he was knocked down, he was not wearing a helmet and hit his head on the ground. He momently stunned and said he saw stars. The man’s vision was blurred for approximately 20 seconds. He left to his bench and showed no other sign of injury except tha
Isaac
that he complained of lingering head ached.
Isaac
1.Do you think the person would have a fracture skull? Explain your answer 2What will the lingering headache indicate 3. If you detected clear fluid dipping from the person nose. What do you suspect might be the source of the fluids?
Isaac
if he broke his skull he will have not survied
Maria
1. if there were no other signs of external injury such as blood or bruising around area of impact or areas of the face, then he more than likely didn't fracture his skull 2. lingering headache could indicate a concussion 3. clear fluid dripping from nose would suggest a cerebrospinal fluid leak
Amber
(and fracturing of the skull does not indicate the person would not survive, of course dependant upon the severity of the impact & internal damage caused)
Amber
what is homeostasis
Rashana
function of microvilli
Suprith
it gives the small intestine a wider surface area which helps absorption to take place
Enada
please what is a lymph
Ayobami Reply
lymphoma is a type of cancer
Maria
No.Lymphoma is not any type of cancer.....
Vivek
simple lymph is a tissue fluid less in plasma proteins which produces during tissue filteration...
Khawaja
lymphoma is a lymphatic cancer either Hodgkin's lymphoma & non Hodgkin's lymphoma..
Khawaja
Yes lymphoma is a lymphatic cancer
Loving

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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