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Blood is viscous and somewhat sticky to the touch. It has a viscosity approximately five times greater than water. Viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s thickness or resistance to flow, and is influenced by the presence of the plasma proteins and formed elements within the blood. The viscosity of blood has a dramatic impact on blood pressure and flow. Consider the difference in flow between water and honey. The more viscous honey would demonstrate a greater resistance to flow than the less viscous water. The same principle applies to blood.

The normal temperature of blood is slightly higher than normal body temperature—about 38 °C (or 100.4 °F), compared to 37 °C (or 98.6 °F) for an internal body temperature reading, although daily variations of 0.5 °C are normal. Although the surface of blood vessels is relatively smooth, as blood flows through them, it experiences some friction and resistance, especially as vessels age and lose their elasticity, thereby producing heat. This accounts for its slightly higher temperature.

The pH of blood averages about 7.4; however, it can range from 7.35 to 7.45 in a healthy person. Blood is therefore somewhat more basic (alkaline) on a chemical scale than pure water, which has a pH of 7.0. Blood contains numerous buffers that actually help to regulate pH.

Blood constitutes approximately 8 percent of adult body weight. Adult males typically average about 5 to 6 liters of blood. Females average 4–5 liters.

Blood plasma

Like other fluids in the body, plasma is composed primarily of water: In fact, it is about 92 percent water. Dissolved or suspended within this water is a mixture of substances, most of which are proteins. There are literally hundreds of substances dissolved or suspended in the plasma, although many of them are found only in very small quantities.

Visit this site for a list of normal levels established for many of the substances found in a sample of blood. Serum, one of the specimen types included, refers to a sample of plasma after clotting factors have been removed. What types of measurements are given for levels of glucose in the blood?

Plasma proteins

About 7 percent of the volume of plasma—nearly all that is not water—is made of proteins. These include several plasma proteins (proteins that are unique to the plasma), plus a much smaller number of regulatory proteins, including enzymes and some hormones. The major components of plasma are summarized in [link] .

The three major groups of plasma proteins are as follows:

  • Albumin is the most abundant of the plasma proteins. Manufactured by the liver, albumin molecules serve as binding proteins—transport vehicles for fatty acids and steroid hormones. Recall that lipids are hydrophobic; however, their binding to albumin enables their transport in the watery plasma. Albumin is also the most significant contributor to the osmotic pressure of blood; that is, its presence holds water inside the blood vessels and draws water from the tissues, across blood vessel walls, and into the bloodstream. This in turn helps to maintain both blood volume and blood pressure. Albumin normally accounts for approximately 54 percent of the total plasma protein content, in clinical levels of 3.5–5.0 g/dL blood.
  • The second most common plasma proteins are the globulins    . A heterogeneous group, there are three main subgroups known as alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. The alpha and beta globulins transport iron, lipids, and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K to the cells; like albumin, they also contribute to osmotic pressure. The gamma globulins are proteins involved in immunity and are better known as an antibodies    or immunoglobulins    . Although other plasma proteins are produced by the liver, immunoglobulins are produced by specialized leukocytes known as plasma cells. (Seek additional content for more information about immunoglobulins.) Globulins make up approximately 38 percent of the total plasma protein volume, in clinical levels of 1.0–1.5 g/dL blood.
  • The least abundant plasma protein is fibrinogen    . Like albumin and the alpha and beta globulins, fibrinogen is produced by the liver. It is essential for blood clotting, a process described later in this chapter. Fibrinogen accounts for about 7 percent of the total plasma protein volume, in clinical levels of 0.2–0.45 g/dL blood.

Questions & Answers

why does the material not allow in mri
Simran Reply
what do you mean 'mri'
Nimco
short for magnetic resonance imaging. "the researchers used MRI to record the brain activity" a medical examination performed using magnetic resonance imaging. "he's having an MRI to determine the extent of the injury" an image obtained by magnetic resonance imaging. "after looking at the MRI, the d
Riyaz
what is the meaning of sutures
Ibrahim Reply
i do not know
Nimo
immovable joints btn two bones.eg the skull bones
Japhar
Really,it's true
Nimco
Sutures are immovable junction between two bones e.g those of the skull
Surphy
what should I do to get or to know what to do for me to be excellent in the course of anatomy and physiology
Sandra Reply
study harder
Japhar
Between the heart and the Brain which one is more important to human being... discuss
Faith Reply
well the brain is important for motor skills, the heart is important for involuntary muscle movement supporting body functions. the body can survive without brain involvement, but the body cannot last without the heart
john
granted the heart is important, but the brain gives the body purpose
john
the brain is more important
Kevin
why?
john
brain
tracey
Even though the brain helps the human being to behave normally and purposefully, I think the heart is much more important cos human being cannot live without the heart
Dzifa
why?
john
change the question
Bind
hello guys
Kevin
heart
Kevin
it is difficult to select which organ is more important, now you can replace the heart with a mechanical device and the body could still function, and with technology today brain activity can also be replicated. But life would not be the same
john
there's coordination btn the two..so without any of them no life
Japhar
the heart
The brain is important to humans.
Zozo
what is homeostasis
Rebecca Reply
It is the condition when body feel comfortable
Jazil
Wo feels hungry, thirty due to homeostasis
Jazil
Is the maintenance of the internal environment of all the body cells for normal growth
Komolika
what is the composition of saliva
Vijay Reply
ഫസ്റ്റ് ചാപ്റ്റർ ഇംപോർട്ടൻസ് പോസ്റ്റ്
Reshma Reply
Yes....
Loving
nhi samjh aya
Anshika
Nhi wt is this
Loving
I don't know
Anshika
Okk wre frm u r
Loving
what is mean of? reshma
Asad
I don't know but would like to
Rebecca
D bone in d ankle joint re what ?
Ifunanya Reply
patellar
Ibrahim
can one define a cell as a basic unit of a living organism
Michael Reply
cell is the structural and functional unit of living organisms
Fidel
Which of the following hormones are responsible for the adolescent growth spurt? estrogen and testosterone, even in women?
Kepa Reply
estrogen
Farhana
Estrogen!
Jazil
estrogen hormone
Michael
yes estrogen hormone
Anshika
yes
Sale
testrogen
Rebecca
What is sling give d characteristics of sling uses of sling
adamu Reply
a sling a rope used in hunting ie throwing of rocks
Michael
I went to learn anatomy of joints
Arman Reply
me 2
adamu
joint have 3 cartilaginous joint fibrous joint synovial joint U can reserch in Google can explain U well
sopheaktra
define sling
adamu
To throw with a circular or arcing motion
real
pls hux I was given an assignment,, Between the heart and Brain which one is more important to human being... discuss
Faith
what is respiration
Osele Reply
what is respiration
Paul
Respiration is the process by which oxygen is taken in and carbon dioxide is given out.
Md
Respiration is the combination of inhalation and exhalation.
Khim
inhalation is the taking in air from environment to lung and exhalation is taking out sir from the lung to environment ..
Khim
is the process by wich gases(oxygen and carbon(IV)oxide go through the nose, trachea and the lungs to the blood stream
Michael
what is holistic
Kibrom Reply
Holistic means encompassing the whole of a thing, and not just the part. Holistic medicine looks at the whole person for answers, not just at physical symptoms. You might have heard of holistic medicine, which tries to treat someone as mind and body, instead of treating only the part of the patient
I want to learn one by one system like skeleton system... muscular system
Mary Reply
i want to learn this
Kibrom
what is the difference between regional anatomy and system anatomy
David
system anatomy is when we study the system like digestive, circulatory, reproductive, but regional anatomy is studying the anatomy by regions of body like anatomy of neck, thorax, head etc. Regional anatomy may include system anatomy...
Biplav
yes
Anshika

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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