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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the location and anatomy of the thyroid gland
  • Discuss the synthesis of triiodothyronine and thyroxine
  • Explain the role of thyroid hormones in the regulation of basal metabolism
  • Identify the hormone produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid

A butterfly-shaped organ, the thyroid gland    is located anterior to the trachea, just inferior to the larynx ( [link] ). The medial region, called the isthmus, is flanked by wing-shaped left and right lobes. Each of the thyroid lobes are embedded with parathyroid glands, primarily on their posterior surfaces. The tissue of the thyroid gland is composed mostly of thyroid follicles. The follicles are made up of a central cavity filled with a sticky fluid called colloid    . Surrounded by a wall of epithelial follicle cells, the colloid is the center of thyroid hormone production, and that production is dependent on the hormones’ essential and unique component: iodine.

Thyroid gland

Part A of this figure is a diagram of the anterior view of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland wrapping around the trachea. It narrows at its center, just under the thyroid cartilage of the larynx. This narrow area is called the isthmus of the thyroid. Two large arteries, the common carotid arteries, run parallel to the trachea on the outer border of the thyroid. A small artery enters the superior edge of the thyroid, near the isthmus, and branches throughout the two “wings” of the thyroid. Part B of this figure is a posterior view of the thyroid. The posterior view shows that the thyroid does not completely wrap around the posterior of the trachea. The posterior sides of the thyroid wings can be seen protruding from under the cricoid cartilage of the larynx. The posterior sides of the thyroid “wings” each contain two small, disc-shaped parathyroid glands embedded in the thyroid tissue. Within each wing, one disc is located superior to the other. These are labeled the left and right parathyroid glands. Just under the inferior parathyroid glands are two arteries that bring blood to the thyroid from the left and right subclavian arteries. Part C of this figure is a micrograph of thyroid tissue. The thyroid follicle cells are cuboidal epithelial cells. These cells form a ring around irregular-shaped cavities called follicles. The follicles contain light colored colloid. A larger parafollicular cell is embedded between two of the follicular cells near the edge of a follicle.
The thyroid gland is located in the neck where it wraps around the trachea. (a) Anterior view of the thyroid gland. (b) Posterior view of the thyroid gland. (c) The glandular tissue is composed primarily of thyroid follicles. The larger parafollicular cells often appear within the matrix of follicle cells. LM × 1332. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Synthesis and release of thyroid hormones

Hormones are produced in the colloid when atoms of the mineral iodine attach to a glycoprotein, called thyroglobulin, that is secreted into the colloid by the follicle cells. The following steps outline the hormones’ assembly:

  1. Binding of TSH to its receptors in the follicle cells of the thyroid gland causes the cells to actively transport iodide ions (I ) across their cell membrane, from the bloodstream into the cytosol. As a result, the concentration of iodide ions “trapped” in the follicular cells is many times higher than the concentration in the bloodstream.
  2. Iodide ions then move to the lumen of the follicle cells that border the colloid. There, the ions undergo oxidation (their negatively charged electrons are removed). The oxidation of two iodide ions (2 I ) results in iodine (I 2 ), which passes through the follicle cell membrane into the colloid.
  3. In the colloid, peroxidase enzymes link the iodine to the tyrosine amino acids in thyroglobulin to produce two intermediaries: a tyrosine attached to one iodine and a tyrosine attached to two iodines. When one of each of these intermediaries is linked by covalent bonds, the resulting compound is triiodothyronine    (T 3 ), a thyroid hormone with three iodines. Much more commonly, two copies of the second intermediary bond, forming tetraiodothyronine, also known as thyroxine    (T 4 ), a thyroid hormone with four iodines.

These hormones remain in the colloid center of the thyroid follicles until TSH stimulates endocytosis of colloid back into the follicle cells. There, lysosomal enzymes break apart the thyroglobulin colloid, releasing free T 3 and T 4 , which diffuse across the follicle cell membrane and enter the bloodstream.

Questions & Answers

Rheumatoid arthritis affects
Jessica Reply
what is oedema
Nantumbwe Reply
i want abook about physiology including the vitamins
Belal
fluid retention in the body. (also spelt as edema) e.g. fluid retention in the lungs is called Pulmonary Edema). It can also happen as a result of Injury manifested as swelling.
Arif
can you give me an example of a tissue composed of few related types of cells
Theresa Reply
What is LMx1600
Mae Reply
the skeletal system includes all of the bones
All Reply
what is the bone not contain red bone marrow in medulla
Duha Reply
To know the part of human body
Sarah Reply
Anatomy refers to as structure of human body
Sarah
so is the macroscopic and microscopic the types of anatomy
Gloria Reply
is microscopic and macroscopic a type of anatomy
Gloria
yes
Maxine
yes
Yabsra
yes
Sarah
Please can someone explain three glands in endocrine system?
josh
.
Robin
can someone explain disease and the category
gege
type 2 is controled by diet
Chloe Reply
Diet and life style
Paias
Diet how? maybe eating food containing less sugar?
BTS
we must eat protein food to check our diet
Sarah
type 2 diabetes cannot be controlled by insulin so therefore your diet should be well balanced especially you shouldn't eat foods with high sugar level or stopping sugar at all so that the sugar content needed by your body will be provided by the balanced diet taken
Enada
what is hypotension
regina Reply
hypotension is when the blood pressure is less than 60/50
Mursal
hypo means low so it implies low blood pressure
Isaac
ok
Mursal
what is mild DKA
Mursal
mild diabetic ketoacidosis is when there is high level of sugar in the blood and the ketone bodies build up in the body ,is a type 1 which can lead to type 2
Isaac
what is the normal range for blood pressure?
BTS
120 over 80
Danielle
low blood pressure; opposite of high blood pressure which is hypertension
Regina
what if your a type 2 diabetic and you have no way to get meds due to no insurance what is some good over the counter medications to take?
Ashley
type 2 diabets is controlled by diet not meds.type 1 is contolled by insulin.
Chloe
type 1 diabets cant be controlled type 2 can be controlled.type 1 is worse than type 2 diabets.
Chloe
type 2 is purely a lifestyle disease, eat healthy, fresh, natural unprocessed real foods.
Danielle
sometime , we already eat diabetic diet than the results of blood sugar level not turn good , what is the reason ?
Muhammad
What is a "diabetic diet" though? Be specific. Juvenile diabetes and/or Type 1 diabetes is something that one can be born with, this needs medical diagnosis and intervention.
Danielle
what i mean by diabetic diet is we take fiber-rich food like vegetables,nut and also fish.
Muhammad
ok, no cause a doctor told me I needed metformin and my suger won't go under 300
Ashley
what is the difference between plasma and serum
Gloria Reply
Plasma contains fibrinogen while serum doesn't
Kateregga
plasma ----- fibrinogen = serum
Sneha
serum is blood plasma without fibrinogen or other clotting factors While blood plasma contains dissolved protein like fibrinogen,globulin, and albumin), glucose, clotting factors,mineral ions like Na2+,Cl-1,hormones and carbon dioxide
Prince
In what time stomach empty it's content in to doudemun? what is chyme?
Sneha Reply
write the chemical and mechanical digestion which occurs in stomach?
Sneha
Does absorption take place in stomach? what are absorption in the stomach by which cell?
Sneha
Chemical digestion---Mixtures of the food with the gastric acid Mechanical digestion--- churning of the food in the stomach making it become more involved into chyme
Mercy
absorption takes place in the small intestine because of the presence of the villi
Enada
name the muscles supplied redina nerve
Appu Reply
mechanism of hormone releasing by gland
said Reply
why is muscle tissue not considered to be a type of connective tissue?
Ezel Reply
A Skeletal muscles consist of numerous muscles cells called Muscle Fibers . Three layers of connective tissues surrounded these fibers to make the muscles tissues
Manisha
that's wny connective tissues is not considered as muscles fibers
Manisha
there are 4 types of tissues : epithelial, connective tissue, nervous tissue and muscle tissue, each one has its own properties. The main function of connective tissue is nutrition, it supplies nutrientes to epithelial tissues that are responsible for protection.
Ariete
Muscle tissue has properties that allow movement, the function here is movement and not nutrition like connective tissue.
Ariete
In what time stomach empty it's content in to doudemun?
Sneha
write the chemical and mechanical digestion which occurs in stomach?
Sneha
Does absorption take place in stomach? what are absorption in the stomach by which cell?
Sneha
Does absorption take place in stomach? what are the absorption in the stomach by which cell?
Sneha
mechanism of hormone controlling releasing by gland
said
please can someone explain renin angiotensin aldosteron system for me
okolie

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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