<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the relationship of mental status exam results to cerebral functions
  • Explain the categorization of regions of the cortex based on anatomy and physiology
  • Differentiate between primary, association, and integration areas of the cerebral cortex
  • Provide examples of localization of function related to the cerebral cortex

In the clinical setting, the set of subtests known as the mental status exam helps us understand the relationship of the brain to the body. Ultimately, this is accomplished by assessing behavior. Tremors related to intentional movements, incoordination, or the neglect of one side of the body can be indicative of failures of the connections of the cerebrum either within the hemispheres, or from the cerebrum to other portions of the nervous system. There is no strict test for what the cerebrum does alone, but rather in what it does through its control of the rest of the CNS, the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and the musculature.

Sometimes eliciting a behavior is as simple as asking a question. Asking a patient to state his or her name is not only to verify that the file folder in a health care provider’s hands is the correct one, but also to be sure that the patient is aware, oriented, and capable of interacting with another person. If the answer to “What is your name?” is “Santa Claus,” the person may have a problem understanding reality. If the person just stares at the examiner with a confused look on their face, the person may have a problem understanding or producing speech.

Functions of the cerebral cortex

The cerebrum is the seat of many of the higher mental functions, such as memory and learning, language, and conscious perception, which are the subjects of subtests of the mental status exam. The cerebral cortex is the thin layer of gray matter on the outside of the cerebrum. It is approximately a millimeter thick in most regions and highly folded to fit within the limited space of the cranial vault. These higher functions are distributed across various regions of the cortex, and specific locations can be said to be responsible for particular functions. There is a limited set of regions, for example, that are involved in language function, and they can be subdivided on the basis of the particular part of language function that each governs.

The basis for parceling out areas of the cortex and attributing them to various functions has its root in pure anatomical underpinnings. The German neurologist and histologist Korbinian Brodmann, who made a careful study of the cytoarchitecture    of the cerebrum around the turn of the nineteenth century, described approximately 50 regions of the cortex that differed enough from each other to be considered separate areas ( [link] ). Brodmann made preparations of many different regions of the cerebral cortex to view with a microscope. He compared the size, shape, and number of neurons to find anatomical differences in the various parts of the cerebral cortex. Continued investigation into these anatomical areas over the subsequent 100 or more years has demonstrated a strong correlation between the structures and the functions attributed to those structures. For example, the first three areas in Brodmann’s list—which are in the postcentral gyrus—compose the primary somatosensory cortex. Within this area, finer separation can be made on the basis of the concept of the sensory homunculus, as well as the different submodalities of somatosensation such as touch, vibration, pain, temperature, or proprioception. Today, we more frequently refer to these regions by their function (i.e., primary sensory cortex) than by the number Brodmann assigned to them, but in some situations the use of Brodmann numbers persists.

Questions & Answers

what are the characteristics of blood
yeboah Reply
they are red in colour
Tawoi
Me phone no petandi meku doubt vunte nenu phone chesi cheputhanu
Mohan Reply
What is respiratory disease
Rita Reply
What are the importance of homeostasis in human body?
Pablo Reply
homeostasis
Abena
it help to keep our salt and water balance
Husna
Homeostasis regulates and mentain internal equilibrium (ie temperature and pH) of the body.
Edmund
maintain temp and ph so our enzyme works properly
Husna
The inability of the body regulating and maintaining the temp. and pH results in disease affection.
Edmund
formation of the bone
Ali Reply
.
mohamed
عاوز ايه يعني من الفورمايشن
Doctor
notes on cell theory and discovery
Masika Reply
Cell theory are a set of rules for overall knowledge on cells. The most famous set of rules include: All cells arise from other cells. The cell is the functional unit of life. The structure (organelles) and morphology of the cell indicates it's main functions.
Carmelo
Antonie Van L. was the first to actually observe alive microorganisms (such as protist and bacteria) in a microscope in the 1600s.
Carmelo
electro phisiology meand
aparna Reply
rouleaux formation factors
Hridya Reply
can anyone suggest me how to learn forearm and hand topic of anatomy?
Anjali Reply
can anyone suggest me how to learn forearm and hand anatomy topic?
Anjali
can anyone suggest me how to learn forearm and hand topic of anatomy? pls pls tell
Anjali
check out youtube videos for trickss and while learning the boness part keep the bone wid u and learn ..... hope it helps u
Subuhi
ohk
Anjali
formation of the bone
Ali
what is the space between d dura mater and pia mater
Uwakwe Reply
Subdural space
Juveriya
Actually sub dural space is space between dura and arachnoid mater And sub arachnoid space is space between arachnoid and pia mater
Juveriya
the smallest bone in the body
Bahja Reply
stapes is the smallest bone in human Body
dipayan
Yeah
Ridwan
what is cell membrane
Hajara
cell membrane is like a protective cover of a cell and it's cytoplasm
dipayan
thanks
Hajara
list two adpitive mechanism that control homeostasis condition
Hajara
positive and negative feedback Mechanism
dipayan
@Dipayan, a cell membrane encloses and surrounds the cytoplasm of the cell. It's structure varies between species of life (eukaryotes, archaea, bacteria), but it is mostly composed of phospholipid, arachidonic acid, proteins, glycoproteins, glycolipids, and cholesterol.
Carmelo
and the glycoprotein and polysaccharides of the cell membrane forms the glycocalyx which has several functions especially in a bacteria.
Norom
can we stain sputum samples?
Apai Reply
Yes
Dorcas
wat do we use in staining them?
Apai
gram stain
Mawuli
Hello
bona
zeel Nelson stain
bona
why the ganglion cyst bumps?
dipayan Reply
i think fats gather under the skin
Matthew
but there were some tissue is present
dipayan
plz Matthew clearly present your answer
dipayan
appilied physiology of umn and lmn lesion
Ananthan Reply
what is umn and imn
dipayan
I don't know
bona
saaa
Patricia
Upper motor neurons (UMN) are responsible for conveying impulses for voluntary motor activity through descending motor pathways that make up the upper motor neurons. UMN send fibers to the LMN, and that exert direct or indirect supranuclear control over the LMN of the cranial and spinal nerves.
Amit
What is your doubt
Mohan
Anatomy of functions of the skeletal system
Tobokwa Reply

Get the best Anatomy & Physiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Anatomy & Physiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask