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Autonomic connections to heart and blood vessels

This figure shows the spinal cord and the different nerves that connect to the heart, which is the target organ shown on the right.
The nicotinic receptor is found on all autonomic ganglia, but the cardiovascular connections are particular, and do not conform to the usual competitive projections that would just cancel each other out when stimulated by nicotine. The opposing signals to the heart would both depolarize and hyperpolarize the heart cells that establish the rhythm of the heartbeat, likely causing arrhythmia. Only the sympathetic system governs systemic blood pressure so nicotine would cause an increase.

Sympathetic effect

The neurochemistry of the sympathetic system is based on the adrenergic system. Norepinephrine and epinephrine influence target effectors by binding to the α-adrenergic or β-adrenergic receptors. Drugs that affect the sympathetic system affect these chemical systems. The drugs can be classified by whether they enhance the functions of the sympathetic system or interrupt those functions. A drug that enhances adrenergic function is known as a sympathomimetic drug    , whereas a drug that interrupts adrenergic function is a sympatholytic drug    .

Sympathomimetic drugs

When the sympathetic system is not functioning correctly or the body is in a state of homeostatic imbalance, these drugs act at postganglionic terminals and synapses in the sympathetic efferent pathway. These drugs either bind to particular adrenergic receptors and mimic norepinephrine at the synapses between sympathetic postganglionic fibers and their targets, or they increase the production and release of norepinephrine from postganglionic fibers. Also, to increase the effectiveness of adrenergic chemicals released from the fibers, some of these drugs may block the removal or reuptake of the neurotransmitter from the synapse.

A common sympathomimetic drug is phenylephrine, which is a common component of decongestants. It can also be used to dilate the pupil and to raise blood pressure. Phenylephrine is known as an α 1 -adrenergic agonist    , meaning that it binds to a specific adrenergic receptor, stimulating a response. In this role, phenylephrine will bind to the adrenergic receptors in bronchioles of the lungs and cause them to dilate. By opening these structures, accumulated mucus can be cleared out of the lower respiratory tract. Phenylephrine is often paired with other pharmaceuticals, such as analgesics, as in the “sinus” version of many over-the-counter drugs, such as Tylenol Sinus ® or Excedrin Sinus ® , or in expectorants for chest congestion such as in Robitussin CF ® .

A related molecule, called pseudoephedrine, was much more commonly used in these applications than was phenylephrine, until the molecule became useful in the illicit production of amphetamines. Phenylephrine is not as effective as a drug because it can be partially broken down in the digestive tract before it is ever absorbed. Like the adrenergic agents, phenylephrine is effective in dilating the pupil, known as mydriasis    ( [link] ). Phenylephrine is used during an eye exam in an ophthalmologist’s or optometrist’s office for this purpose. It can also be used to increase blood pressure in situations in which cardiac function is compromised, such as under anesthesia or during septic shock.

Questions & Answers

ഫസ്റ്റ് ചാപ്റ്റർ ഇംപോർട്ടൻസ് പോസ്റ്റ്
Reshma Reply
Yes....
Loving
nhi samjh aya
Anshika
Nhi wt is this
Loving
I don't know
Anshika
Okk wre frm u r
Loving
what is mean of? reshma
Asad
D bone in d ankle joint re what ?
Ifunanya Reply
can one define a cell as a basic unit of a living organism
Michael Reply
Which of the following hormones are responsible for the adolescent growth spurt? estrogen and testosterone, even in women?
Kepa Reply
estrogen
Farhana
Estrogen!
Jazil
estrogen hormone
Michael
yes estrogen hormone
Anshika
yes
Sale
What is sling give d characteristics of sling uses of sling
adamu Reply
a sling a rope used in hunting ie throwing of rocks
Michael
I went to learn anatomy of joints
Arman Reply
me 2
adamu
joint have 3 cartilaginous joint fibrous joint synovial joint U can reserch in Google can explain U well
sopheaktra
define sling
adamu
To throw with a circular or arcing motion
real
what is respiration
Osele Reply
what is respiration
Paul
Respiration is the process by which oxygen is taken in and carbon dioxide is given out.
Md
Respiration is the combination of inhalation and exhalation.
Khim
inhalation is the taking in air from environment to lung and exhalation is taking out sir from the lung to environment ..
Khim
is the process by wich gases(oxygen and carbon(IV)oxide go through the nose, trachea and the lungs to the blood stream
Michael
what is holistic
Kibrom Reply
Holistic means encompassing the whole of a thing, and not just the part. Holistic medicine looks at the whole person for answers, not just at physical symptoms. You might have heard of holistic medicine, which tries to treat someone as mind and body, instead of treating only the part of the patient
I want to learn one by one system like skeleton system... muscular system
Mary Reply
i want to learn this
Kibrom
what is the difference between regional anatomy and system anatomy
David
system anatomy is when we study the system like digestive, circulatory, reproductive, but regional anatomy is studying the anatomy by regions of body like anatomy of neck, thorax, head etc. Regional anatomy may include system anatomy...
Biplav
yes
Anshika
explain in details factors that affects bone development
Precious Reply
describe the process of bone healing
Precious
out line factors that delays bone healing
Precious
actually,for the bone formation they must be sufficient level of calcium,phosphorus and vitamin D in the body for it to happen smoothly.
lucky
the above mentioned substances are the ones able for the formation and repairing of bones.
lucky
explain in details factors that affects bone development
Precious
what are tissue
muki Reply
a lots of cells make tissue and a cell body is tissue
Rabab
cells come together to form a tissue and tissues come together to form an organ
Adoma
what is appendicular skeleton
OSE Reply
appendicular skeleton is upper limbs and lower limbs
sopheaktra
what is decompression sickness?
Japhar Reply
It occurs in Scuba divers when they rise too quicky to the sea surface , their oxygen tanks have oxygen mixed with N2 gas which has a high solubility at sea level , when the diver rises the N2 gas bubbles out of plasma and this causes Air Ebolism
Siphiwesihle
if a single part if Nervous system doesn't function like synapse? what will occur
Lilian Reply
no transmission of impulses no respond cause mechanical damage
Komolika
what happens when calcium ion channel is blocked
Jachike
a MORAH /MORAH
Kechi
meaning?
Jachike
transmission of impure
sopheaktra
when calcium ion channels block . lightheadedness Low blood pressure. Slower heart rate. Drowsiness. Constipation. Swelling of feet ankles and legs. Increased appetite. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD
sopheaktra
I'm not sure about it
sopheaktra
low blood pressure
Anshika
what is this substance
Peng Reply
In the human body, there are no atoms as separate entities. Instead, they constantly interact with other atoms to form and break down more complex materials. To fully understand anatomy and physiology, you must understand how atoms are involved in such interactions. The key is to understand the beha
Warid
what are functions of muscle cell
Veronicah
please can someone help with ten functions of the following hormones 1.Gastrin 2. Adrenal sex hormone 3. Secretin 4. Follicle Stimulating Hormone 5. Glucagon 6. Progesterone
Har
4.produces the oetrogen and bursts open to release egg cells.
Komolika
5.regulates the level of glucose in the blood and it is secreted when glucose low in the blood.
Komolika

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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