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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the structures found in the PNS
  • Distinguish between somatic and autonomic structures, including the special peripheral structures of the enteric nervous system
  • Name the twelve cranial nerves and explain the functions associated with each
  • Describe the sensory and motor components of spinal nerves and the plexuses that they pass through

The PNS is not as contained as the CNS because it is defined as everything that is not the CNS. Some peripheral structures are incorporated into the other organs of the body. In describing the anatomy of the PNS, it is necessary to describe the common structures, the nerves and the ganglia, as they are found in various parts of the body. Many of the neural structures that are incorporated into other organs are features of the digestive system; these structures are known as the enteric nervous system    and are a special subset of the PNS.

Ganglia

A ganglion is a group of neuron cell bodies in the periphery. Ganglia can be categorized, for the most part, as either sensory ganglia or autonomic ganglia, referring to their primary functions. The most common type of sensory ganglion is a dorsal (posterior) root ganglion    . These ganglia are the cell bodies of neurons with axons that are sensory endings in the periphery, such as in the skin, and that extend into the CNS through the dorsal nerve root. The ganglion is an enlargement of the nerve root. Under microscopic inspection, it can be seen to include the cell bodies of the neurons, as well as bundles of fibers that are the posterior nerve root ( [link] ). The cells of the dorsal root ganglion are unipolar cells, classifying them by shape. Also, the small round nuclei of satellite cells can be seen surrounding—as if they were orbiting—the neuron cell bodies.

Dorsal root ganglion

This micrograph shows the structure of the dorsal root ganglion. The cell bodies of the neurons and the axon bundles are also labeled.
The cell bodies of sensory neurons, which are unipolar neurons by shape, are seen in this photomicrograph. Also, the fibrous region is composed of the axons of these neurons that are passing through the ganglion to be part of the dorsal nerve root (tissue source: canine). LM × 40. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Spinal cord and root ganglion

This micrograph shows a magnified view of the dorsal root ganglion, showing the satellite cells and the cell bodies of sensory neurons.
The slide includes both a cross-section of the lumbar spinal cord and a section of the dorsal root ganglion (see also [link] ) (tissue source: canine). LM × 1600. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

View the University of Michigan WebScope at (External Link) to explore the tissue sample in greater detail. If you zoom in on the dorsal root ganglion, you can see smaller satellite glial cells surrounding the large cell bodies of the sensory neurons. From what structure do satellite cells derive during embryologic development?

Another type of sensory ganglion is a cranial nerve ganglion    . This is analogous to the dorsal root ganglion, except that it is associated with a cranial nerve    instead of a spinal nerve    . The roots of cranial nerves are within the cranium, whereas the ganglia are outside the skull. For example, the trigeminal ganglion    is superficial to the temporal bone whereas its associated nerve is attached to the mid-pons region of the brain stem. The neurons of cranial nerve ganglia are also unipolar in shape with associated satellite cells.

Questions & Answers

life circle of RBC and the life circle of WBC.
Yemi Reply
RBC 120days
Zeph
RBC 120days and WBC 10-12days
sai
what is anatomy?
Md Reply
positive feedback mechanism
Sirimala Reply
what is immunology
Riya Reply
immunology is a branch of medicine that study's the body immune system
SAMUEL
Immunology This is the study of specific and non-specific resistance of the body against infection i.e. the study of the immune response of a host to a foreign substance, which includes study of various reactions which are induced in the body by introduction of a substance.
Kaluki
what is role of elimination need like fluid and also stools
Munmun Reply
bone
Vijay
what is joint pain
Vijay
is the physical suffering caused by illness or injury of the joint
malulu
pls can someone describe shock,types ,pathophysiology and treatment
Isaac
this is what I'm thinking "After taking out everything the body needs, the bowel then expels the leftover waste."
isaiah
I think elimination also helps in the continuation of the digestive system because if the unwanted fluids and stools does not come out of the system it can create a problem in the digestive. system resulting in diseases.
Martha
shock is a condition whereby the circulating system is unable to get enough blood and oxygen to vital organs like the brain,heart,eye,kidney and others.
Martha
causing depression of those organs.
Martha
there are 2 classification of shock. primary shock: this occurs immediately after injury due emotional stimulus or pain.example hearing a bad news,sudden obstruction of airway.sudden heart attack. secondary shock :it occurs when primary shock is delayed
Martha
types of shock syncope (faint) oligaemic or hyppvovaemic shock. Anaphylactic shock. neurogenic/ physical shock septic sock catdiogenic shock.
Martha
What is the difference between dna duplication and chromosomes duplication?
to help you identify the human body parts to help you live a healthy life the study of Anatomy helps one to work in any health sector
sophia Reply
okay.
what is the function of the mitochondrial in the cell
Vida Reply
define and explain the synovial membrane
Mahmudu Reply
What is cloning?
Jesam Reply
relationship between anatomy and physiology
Ranjeeta Reply
anatomy is the structure and physiology is the function
Isaac
the branches of physiology
Asiedu Reply
is single DNA arranged into 46 chromosomes
Vaishnavi Reply
don't know about it
Sachin
no it is duble strand or pair of chromosomes
Marta
how does muscle contraction work?
Matthew
no,it is arranged as 23 pairs chromosomes
Ajiola
what are the parts of a cell?
Noel Reply
cell body, nucleus, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth), Golgi apparatus, cell membrane and organelles.
Heather
cell membrane, cell wall,cytoplasm, nucleus, etc
Felix
explain how skeletal muscles work
Felix
they work voluntarily
Trina
46 chromosomes present in which part of human body
Anar
when twins born how both of them carry 46 chromosomes
Anar
In the nuclear membrane
wisdom
but thiere r many cells n definetely cells have many nuclear membrane
Anar
cytoplasm plasma membrane nucleus
Ajiola
nucleus cytoplasm epr spr mitochondria
sureshbabu
cell have many parts and it act as different function s
sureshbabu
lysosome, golge body, cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Vida
what is sex with male and female!
Muhammad Reply
intercourse
Jessie
sexual intercourse
Jessie
for formation of new generation
Sunil
sex is a female and male body courtship, rubbing of penis and vagina which results in release of fluids (sperm) from male in to the vagina of the female know as ejaculation
CHUOL
sex is a body courtship, penis and vagina rubbing which results in release of fluids sperm)
CHUOL
how sure a u?
Pius
it's like copulation
Pius

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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