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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Identify the appendicular muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower limb
  • Identify the movement and function of the pelvic girdle and lower limb

The appendicular muscles of the lower body position and stabilize the pelvic girdle    , which serves as a foundation for the lower limbs. Comparatively, there is much more movement at the pectoral girdle than at the pelvic girdle. There is very little movement of the pelvic girdle because of its connection with the sacrum at the base of the axial skeleton. The pelvic girdle is less range of motion because it was designed to stabilize and support the body.

Muscles of the thigh

What would happen if the pelvic girdle, which attaches the lower limbs to the torso, were capable of the same range of motion as the pectoral girdle? For one thing, walking would expend more energy if the heads of the femurs were not secured in the acetabula of the pelvis. The body’s center of gravity is in the area of the pelvis. If the center of gravity were not to remain fixed, standing up would be difficult as well. Therefore, what the leg muscles lack in range of motion and versatility, they make up for in size and power, facilitating the body’s stabilization, posture, and movement.

Gluteal region muscles that move the femur

Most muscles that insert on the femur (the thigh bone) and move it, originate on the pelvic girdle. The psoas major    and iliacus    make up the iliopsoas group    . Some of the largest and most powerful muscles in the body are the gluteal muscles or gluteal group    . The gluteus maximus    is the largest; deep to the gluteus maximus is the gluteus medius    , and deep to the gluteus medius is the gluteus minimus    , the smallest of the trio ( [link] and [link] ).

Hip and thigh muscles

The left panel shows the superficial pelvic and thigh muscles, the center panel shows the deep pelvic and thigh muscles. The right panel shows the posterior view of the pelvic and thigh muscles.
The large and powerful muscles of the hip that move the femur generally originate on the pelvic girdle and insert into the femur. The muscles that move the lower leg typically originate on the femur and insert into the bones of the knee joint. The anterior muscles of the femur extend the lower leg but also aid in flexing the thigh. The posterior muscles of the femur flex the lower leg but also aid in extending the thigh. A combination of gluteal and thigh muscles also adduct, abduct, and rotate the thigh and lower leg.

Gluteal region muscles that move the femur

This table describes gluteal region muscles that move the femur. These muscles make up the iliopsoas group. The psoas major raises the knee at the hip, as if performing a knee attack; it also assists the lateral rotators in twisting the thigh (and lower leg) outward, and assists with bending over and maintaining posture. It originates in the lumbar vertebrae (L1 through L5) and thoracic vertebra (T12). The iliacus raises the knee at the hip, as if performing a knee attack; it also assists the lateral rotators in twisting the thigh (and lower leg) outward, and assists with bending over and maintaining posture. It originates in the iliac fossa, iliac crest, and lateral sacrum. These muscles make up the gluteal group. The gluteous maximus lowers the knee and moves the thigh back, as when getting ready to kick a ball. It originates in the dorsal ilium, sacrum, and coccyx. The gluteus medius opens the thigh, as when doing a split. It originates in the lateral surface of the ilium. The gluteus minimus brings the thighs back together. It originates in the external surface of the ilium. The tensor fascia lata assists with raising the knee at the hip and opening the thighs; it also maintains posture by stabilizing the iliotibial track, which connects to the knee. It originates in the anterior aspect of the iliac crest and the anterior superior iliac spine. These muscles make up the lateral rotators. The piriformis twists the thigh (and lower leg) outward; it also maintains posture by stabilizing the hip joint. It originates in the anterolateral surface of the sacrum. The obturator internus twists the thigh (and lower leg) outward; it also maintains posture by stabilizing the hip joint. It originates in the inner surface of the obturator membrane, the greater sciatic notch, and the margins of the obturator foramen. The superior gemellus twists the thigh (and lower leg) outward; it also maintains posture by stabilizing the hip joint. It originates in the ischial spine. The inferior gemellus twists the thigh (and lower leg) outward; it also maintains posture by stabilizing the hip joint. It originates in the ischial tuberosity. The quatratus femoris twists the thigh (and lower leg) outward; it also maints posture by stabilizing the hip joint. It originates in the ischial tuberosity. These muscles are adductors. The adductor longus brings the thighs back together; it also assists with raising the knee. It originates in the pubis near the pubic symphysis. The adductor brevis brings the thighs back together; it also assists with raising the knee. It originates in teh body of the pubis and in the inferior ramus of the pubis. The adductor magnus brings the thighs back together; it also assists with raising the knee and moving the thigh back. It originates in the ischial rami, the pubic rami, and the ischial tuberosity. The pectineus opens the thigh; it also assists with raising the knee and turning the thigh (and lower leg) inward. It originates in the pectineal line of the pubis.

The tensor fascia latae is a thick, squarish muscle in the superior aspect of the lateral thigh. It acts as a synergist of the gluteus medius and iliopsoas in flexing and abducting the thigh. It also helps stabilize the lateral aspect of the knee by pulling on the iliotibial tract    (band), making it taut. Deep to the gluteus maximus, the piriformis    , obturator internus    , obturator externus    , superior gemellus    , inferior gemellus    , and quadratus femoris    laterally rotate the femur at the hip.

The adductor longus    , adductor brevis    , and adductor magnus    can both medially and laterally rotate the thigh depending on the placement of the foot. The adductor longus flexes the thigh, whereas the adductor magnus extends it. The pectineus    adducts and flexes the femur at the hip as well. The pectineus is located in the femoral triangle    , which is formed at the junction between the hip and the leg and also includes the femoral nerve, the femoral artery, the femoral vein, and the deep inguinal lymph nodes.

Questions & Answers

master gland Kon si h
kajal Reply
Pituitary gland
KUNDAN
pituitary gland because it give harmonies and control other gland
ABDULLAH
glands often secrete hormones which play an important role in maintaining homeostasis.
KUNDAN
pituitary gland
Aftab
pituitary gland is master gland because it present in biran and secrtehormones and play other gland of human body and function its gland so that also called master gland.
ABDULLAH
pituitary glandis the master gland of our body
Nadeem
how do you study for A&P? lab and lecture?
Aubrey Reply
When one is suffering from motion sickness what area of the brain may trigger emesis?
amy Reply
that is the sign of stroke. if the patient have a stroke. the left side of body is weakness, the affected right of cerebrum but if right side of the body is weakness surely in left side!
Larry
thank you sooo much bro
Fatima Reply
helloo
Sentamu
Fatima hw a u
Sentamu
hii
Shubham
any one elaborate fr me foramens of the skull and features which they transmit
Sentamu
icant undrestand plz
zahruuzh Reply
try to read I hop you will understand
state and explain 20 radiology uses
ILYAS Reply
what are chemicals in anatomy and physiology?
Mike Reply
what can I do to find it easy for me in anatomy and physiology course
Mike
study up on the basics of the periodic chart, learn bones and muscles attachments, and learn muscles. Those take the longest to memorize. After that it should be a little easier.
Toni
what are the two types of body cells
Jennifer Reply
what is malnutrition
Claire
malnutrition refers to faulty nutrition resulting from malabsorption,poor diet or overeating. Sometimes too these food do not contain all the six food nutrients in their right proportion.
Yakubu
thank you
Claire
welcome
Yakubu
Will u be malnourished?
Baigwa
gud
Budumari
What's the difference between radiology and radiology
gabriel
Nothing! Radiology it means the study or using of radiation in medical science it can be 1.diagnose or treatment diagnosed radiology! x- ray. ultrasound. ct-scan. mammogram. MRI. 2. treatmen- radiation oncology, like Cobalt 60. and nuclear medicine
Larry
what is X-ray?
Nissar
X-ray is type of light that make it possible to see inside any object. as human body
KUNDAN
How the nervous system develops
ayiesher Reply
From the cells at the back of an embryo
Mma
breifly explain anatomy of thorax
Hadiza Reply
How many region the rib is divided
Konneh
how many bon of human being
Nura
206
John
how to study for the skeletal system
ryaisha
and anatomy
ryaisha
I really need sources immediately
ryaisha
I printed out all the different bones. Put them in the see through protective sheaths and got dry erase markers. I could right on them and erase to help me learn to spell the names of markings and bones.
Toni
Or go to a book store, Barnes and Noble(doesn't have to be this) and they have coloring books for anatomy. $16. Really helpful.
Toni
okay thanks and are what study tools you use to study the materials and get a better understanding
ryaisha
*what are
ryaisha
hiii
Roopa
I prefer diagrams, pictures that lay out each step with the information in each step. For Example: how action potential creates muscles to move. A pictured diagram gives me a better understanding of how each piece plays a role in each step of the process.
Toni
Also for basics, such as memorizing vocab. Flash cards are great. Don't become discouraged if you don't get them all right the first times through. The more you go through them, your brain will remember pieces of information from each and help you to pull out the information 😉
Toni
okay thanks
ryaisha
what is the functions of the lips in human
Momboi Reply
could I say sensation?
Sovilace
kissing
Obrian
for protection
Omar
Lips assist in speech and eating
Cindy
Too many easy questions. Which bones are the axial and appendicular? What are the abbreviations for TEE, TTE, AED, A-Mode, B-Mode, and LTH? What is the difference between hypothalamus and thalamus? Where is the parathyroid located? How many True Ribs do we have?
Sovilace Reply
Transesophageal echocardiography Transthoracic Echocardiography automated external defibrillator brightnees mode Los Hermanos Taverna
Inam
what is anatomy
okello Reply
anatomy is scientific study of body structures and how they relate to each other
Skeater
Are there other functions of the nucleolus apart from synthesis of RNA and formation of ribosomes
Peninah Reply
plays a role in cell response to stress
airiz
what is angle of auscultation
Bryan Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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