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Muscles that move the humerus

The top left panel shows the lateral view of the pectoral and back muscles. The top right panel shows the posterior view of the right deltoid and the left back muscle. The bottom left panel shows the anterior view of the deep muscles of the left shoulder, and the bottom right panel shows the deep muscles of the left shoulder.
(a, c) The muscles that move the humerus anteriorly are generally located on the anterior side of the body and originate from the sternum (e.g., pectoralis major) or the anterior side of the scapula (e.g., subscapularis). (b) The muscles that move the humerus superiorly generally originate from the superior surfaces of the scapula and/or the clavicle (e.g., deltoids). The muscles that move the humerus inferiorly generally originate from middle or lower back (e.g., latissiumus dorsi). (d) The muscles that move the humerus posteriorly are generally located on the posterior side of the body and insert into the scapula (e.g., infraspinatus).

Muscles that move the humerus

This table describes the muscles that move the humerus. The pectoralis major is an axial muscle that brings the elbows together and moves the elbows up (as during an uppercut punch). It originates in the clavicle, sternum, cartilage of ribs 1 through 6 or 1 through 7, and the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle. The latissimus dorsi is an axial muscle that moves the elbow back (as in elbowing someone standing behind you) or spreads the elbows apart. It originates in the thoracic vertebrae (T7 through T12), the lower vertebrae, ribs 9 through 12, and the iliac crest. The deltoid is a scapular muscle that lifts arms at the shoulder. It originates in the trapezius, clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula. The subscapularis is a scapular muscle that assists the pectoralis major in bringing the elbows together and stabilizes the shoulder joint during movement of the pectoral girdle. It originates in the subscapular fossa of the scapula. The supraspinatus is a scapular muscle that rotates the elbow outwards, as during a tennis swing. It originates in the supraspinous fossa of the scapula. The infraspinatus is a scapular muscle that rotates the elbow outwards, as during a tennis swing. It originates in the infraspinous fossa of the scapula. The teres major is a scapular muscle that assists the infraspinatus in rotating the elbow outwards. It originates in the posterior surface of the scapula. The teres minor is a scapular muscle that assists the infraspinatus in rotating the elbow outwards. It originates in the lateral border of the dorsal scapular surface. The coracobra chialis is a scapular muscle that moves the elbow up and across the body, as when putting a hand on the chest. It originates in the coracoid process of the scapula.

The rest of the shoulder muscles originate on the scapula. The anatomical and ligamental structure of the shoulder joint and the arrangements of the muscles covering it, allows the arm to carry out different types of movements. The deltoid    , the thick muscle that creates the rounded lines of the shoulder is the major abductor of the arm, but it also facilitates flexing and medial rotation, as well as extension and lateral rotation. The subscapularis    originates on the anterior scapula and medially rotates the arm. Named for their locations, the supraspinatus    (superior to the spine of the scapula) and the infraspinatus    (inferior to the spine of the scapula) abduct the arm, and laterally rotate the arm, respectively. The thick and flat teres major    is inferior to the teres minor and extends the arm, and assists in adduction and medial rotation of it. The long teres minor    laterally rotates and extends the arm. Finally, the coracobrachialis    flexes and adducts the arm.

The tendons of the deep subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor connect the scapula to the humerus, forming the rotator cuff    (musculotendinous cuff), the circle of tendons around the shoulder joint. When baseball pitchers undergo shoulder surgery it is usually on the rotator cuff, which becomes pinched and inflamed, and may tear away from the bone due to the repetitive motion of bring the arm overhead to throw a fast pitch.

Muscles that move the forearm

The forearm, made of the radius and ulna bones, has four main types of action at the hinge of the elbow joint: flexion, extension, pronation, and supination. The forearm flexors include the biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis. The extensors are the triceps brachii    and anconeus    . The pronators are the pronator teres    and the pronator quadratus    , and the supinator    is the only one that turns the forearm anteriorly. When the forearm faces anteriorly, it is supinated. When the forearm faces posteriorly, it is pronated.

The biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis flex the forearm. The two-headed biceps brachii    crosses the shoulder and elbow joints to flex the forearm, also taking part in supinating the forearm at the radioulnar joints and flexing the arm at the shoulder joint. Deep to the biceps brachii, the brachialis    provides additional power in flexing the forearm. Finally, the brachioradialis    can flex the forearm quickly or help lift a load slowly. These muscles and their associated blood vessels and nerves form the anterior compartment of the arm    (anterior flexor compartment of the arm) ( [link] and [link] ).

Questions & Answers

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The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction.
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cerebro spinal fluid
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The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by a clear fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This fluid is produced and stored in cavities in the brain called ventricles. It circulatesaround the brain, moving from ventricle to ventricle. ... Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is too much CSF
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End Stage of Renal Failure
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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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