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The linea alba    is a white, fibrous band that is made of the bilateral rectus sheaths    that join at the anterior midline of the body. These enclose the rectus abdominis    muscles (a pair of long, linear muscles, commonly called the “sit-up” muscles) that originate at the pubic crest and symphysis, and extend the length of the body’s trunk. Each muscle is segmented by three transverse bands of collagen fibers called the tendinous intersections    . This results in the look of “six-pack abs,” as each segment hypertrophies on individuals at the gym who do many sit-ups.

The posterior abdominal wall is formed by the lumbar vertebrae, parts of the ilia of the hip bones, psoas major and iliacus muscles, and quadratus lumborum    muscle. This part of the core plays a key role in stabilizing the rest of the body and maintaining posture.

Career connections

Physical therapists

Those who have a muscle or joint injury will most likely be sent to a physical therapist (PT) after seeing their regular doctor. PTs have a master’s degree or doctorate, and are highly trained experts in the mechanics of body movements. Many PTs also specialize in sports injuries.

If you injured your shoulder while you were kayaking, the first thing a physical therapist would do during your first visit is to assess the functionality of the joint. The range of motion of a particular joint refers to the normal movements the joint performs. The PT will ask you to abduct and adduct, circumduct, and flex and extend the arm. The PT will note the shoulder’s degree of function, and based on the assessment of the injury, will create an appropriate physical therapy plan.

The first step in physical therapy will probably be applying a heat pack to the injured site, which acts much like a warm-up to draw blood to the area, to enhance healing. You will be instructed to do a series of exercises to continue the therapy at home, followed by icing, to decrease inflammation and swelling, which will continue for several weeks. When physical therapy is complete, the PT will do an exit exam and send a detailed report on the improved range of motion and return of normal limb function to your doctor. Gradually, as the injury heals, the shoulder will begin to function correctly. A PT works closely with patients to help them get back to their normal level of physical activity.

Muscles of the thorax

The muscles of the chest serve to facilitate breathing by changing the size of the thoracic cavity ( [link] ). When you inhale, your chest rises because the cavity expands. Alternately, when you exhale, your chest falls because the thoracic cavity decreases in size.

Muscles of the Thorax
Movement Target Target motion direction Prime mover Origin Insertion
Inhalation; exhalation Thoracic cavity Compression; expansion Diaphragm Sternum; ribs 6–12; lumbar vertebrae Central tendon
Inhalation;exhalation Ribs Elevation (expands thoracic cavity) External intercostals Rib superior to each intercostal muscle Rib inferior to each intercostal muscle
Forced exhalation Ribs Movement along superior/inferior axis to bring ribs closer together Internal intercostals Rib inferior to each intercostal muscle Rib superior to each intercostal muscle

Questions & Answers

coronary circulation ?
Juri Reply
Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle (myocardium). Coronary arteries supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle, and cardiac veins drain away the blood once it has been deoxygenated. Because the rest of the body.
Riyaz
coronary circulation ,is flow of blood that supplies the heart tissue itself is the coronary circulation. the functional blood supply of the heart,is the shortest circulation in tha body.
Vineeta
what about the easy way to understand action potential
Bright
event of cardiac cycle
Juri Reply
hii
Chandan
whatisanatom
kaso Reply
anatomy is the scientific way of studying the body structure.
cynthia
the branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans, animals, and other living organisms, especially as revealed by dissection and the separation of parts.
Noor
what is means by LAPE and HAPE
Noor
guys i've question what occur when homeostasis balance mechanisms lost
cris Reply
Bladder is blank to the small intestine, what is the right directional term for that?
Julaika Reply
When peristaltic movement is correct.
Farid
what tissue that support body organ?
Sabrina Reply
the skeleton
veronica
Skeleton
GEBAH
skeleton
Juwita
skeleton
Farid
skeleton
Priya
skeleton
Emmanuel
skeleton
Noor
skeleton
BILAL
skeleton
hanuman
how many bones are there in the body
hanuman Reply
go uuu
Prasad
206
Prasad
206
Nelago
206
Esmeralda
206
Joey
baby me 360. and human body 206.found bones.....
Sneha
what is a tissue in Anatomy and physiology
Nelago
206 bones
Juwita
what is an example of a molecule that can directly pass through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane?
Kathy
206
Johara
how many bones are there in the hand and wrist
hanuman
200 tissue
hanuman
answer 206 bones
GEBAH
axial 80 appendicular 126 total bone is 206
Vineeta
wrist bone 8
Vineeta
baby bone 270 he is correct answer
hanuman
Jo carpus wrist bone h
Vineeta
206
Musonda
206 bones in human body.
Farid
What is Heart attack?
Farid
206
Priti
206 all
Sa
All 206
Sa
A heart attack happens when the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle suddenly becomes blocked and the heart can't get oxygen. If blood flow isn't restored quickly, the section of heart muscle begins to die. Heart attack treatment works best when it's given right after symptoms occu
Riyaz
how can l understand Anatomy quickly?
Agness Reply
you can't!!!! Anatomy is easy but the physiology takes time to understand. Anatomy is simply systems and organs but you must take time to learn physiology to understand how the anatomy works
Rachael
alright.. so how can l at least memorize the information about physiology?
Agness
what name is given to the fluid that is drawn from the villi to the lymphatic vessels
margaret Reply
I think venous
Noor
lymph
Rachael
I also think it's lymph
Akhi
me too I think lymph
Esmeralda
ans Rhythmic contraction
GEBAH
what are the ten (10) rights for drug administration
GEBAH
importance of muscle in the anatomical structures.
Akomeng Reply
it permits the constant level of movement,and gives structure and shape to the body
Priya
what is assimilation
Asiimwe Reply
cellular level organism level chemical level organ system level tissue level organ level
Aleah Reply
, the current topic
Hilya
cellular level
Priya
tissue level
Priya
organ level
Priya
organ systems level
Priya
organism level
Priya
what is anatomy?
Aleah Reply
anatomy is the study of internal parts of body by disecting it.
Shweta
The study of the internal body parts and it's organs are referred as Anatomy.
Adarsh
hey guys am new here?
Annica Reply
undesrtanding the different part of a cell
Jean
***youtu.be/QXT4OVM4vXI this is a great video to help in understanding. It has helped me allot and learned about the distance between atom.
david
sperm cell and egg cell which one have more cell than the other
Urama Reply
sperm cell!
Longvwam
The sperm is _______ to the sternum
Jean
distal
Rachael
posterior
rOx

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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