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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Identify the intrinsic skeletal muscles of the back and neck, and the skeletal muscles of the abdominal wall and thorax
  • Identify the movement and function of the intrinsic skeletal muscles of the back and neck, and the skeletal muscles of the abdominal wall and thorax

It is a complex job to balance the body on two feet and walk upright. The muscles of the vertebral column, thorax, and abdominal wall extend, flex, and stabilize different parts of the body’s trunk. The deep muscles of the core of the body help maintain posture as well as carry out other functions. The brain sends out electrical impulses to these various muscle groups to control posture by alternate contraction and relaxation. This is necessary so that no single muscle group becomes fatigued too quickly. If any one group fails to function, body posture will be compromised.

Muscles of the abdomen

There are four pairs of abdominal muscles that cover the anterior and lateral abdominal region and meet at the anterior midline. These muscles of the anterolateral abdominal wall can be divided into four groups: the external obliques, the internal obliques, the transversus abdominis, and the rectus abdominis ( [link] and [link] ).

Muscles of the abdomen

The top panel shows the lateral view of the superficial and deep abdominal muscles. The bottom panel shows the anterior view of the posterior abdominal muscles.
(a) The anterior abdominal muscles include the medially located rectus abdominis, which is covered by a sheet of connective tissue called the rectus sheath. On the flanks of the body, medial to the rectus abdominis, the abdominal wall is composed of three layers. The external oblique muscles form the superficial layer, while the internal oblique muscles form the middle layer, and the transverses abdominus forms the deepest layer. (b) The muscles of the lower back move the lumbar spine but also assist in femur movements.
Muscles of the Abdomen
Movement Target Target motion direction Prime mover Origin Insertion
Twisting at waist; also bending to the side Vertebral column Supination; lateral flexion External obliques; internal obliques Ribs 5–12; ilium Ribs 7–10; linea alba; ilium
Squeezing abdomen during forceful exhalations, defecation, urination, and childbirth Abdominal cavity Compression Transversus abdominus Ilium; ribs 5–10 Sternum; linea alba; pubis
Sitting up Vertebral column Flexion Rectus abdominis Pubis Sternum; ribs 5 and 7
Bending to the side Vertebral column Lateral flexion Quadratus lumborum Ilium; ribs 5–10 Rib 12; vertebrae L1–L4

There are three flat skeletal muscles in the antero-lateral wall of the abdomen. The external oblique    , closest to the surface, extend inferiorly and medially, in the direction of sliding one’s four fingers into pants pockets. Perpendicular to it is the intermediate internal oblique    , extending superiorly and medially, the direction the thumbs usually go when the other fingers are in the pants pocket. The deep muscle, the transversus abdominis    , is arranged transversely around the abdomen, similar to the front of a belt on a pair of pants. This arrangement of three bands of muscles in different orientations allows various movements and rotations of the trunk. The three layers of muscle also help to protect the internal abdominal organs in an area where there is no bone.

Questions & Answers

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glucocorticoids mineralocorticoid and catecholamines
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polar unequal share of electron while non polar is equal share
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Bocz of unpaired elections
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because of unpaired electrons
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Amphipathic molecules are molecules with both polar and non polar regions
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what are the smooth muscles of the heart
Sintung Reply
stomach
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saba Reply
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saba
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CT Scan means
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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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