<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Discuss the uses and drawbacks of X-ray imaging
  • Identify four modern medical imaging techniques and how they are used

For thousands of years, fear of the dead and legal sanctions limited the ability of anatomists and physicians to study the internal structures of the human body. An inability to control bleeding, infection, and pain made surgeries infrequent, and those that were performed—such as wound suturing, amputations, tooth and tumor removals, skull drilling, and cesarean births—did not greatly advance knowledge about internal anatomy. Theories about the function of the body and about disease were therefore largely based on external observations and imagination. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, however, the detailed anatomical drawings of Italian artist and anatomist Leonardo da Vinci and Flemish anatomist Andreas Vesalius were published, and interest in human anatomy began to increase. Medical schools began to teach anatomy using human dissection; although some resorted to grave robbing to obtain corpses. Laws were eventually passed that enabled students to dissect the corpses of criminals and those who donated their bodies for research. Still, it was not until the late nineteenth century that medical researchers discovered non-surgical methods to look inside the living body.

X-rays

German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen (1845–1923) was experimenting with electrical current when he discovered that a mysterious and invisible “ray” would pass through his flesh but leave an outline of his bones on a screen coated with a metal compound. In 1895, Röntgen made the first durable record of the internal parts of a living human: an “X-ray” image (as it came to be called) of his wife’s hand. Scientists around the world quickly began their own experiments with X-rays, and by 1900, X-rays were widely used to detect a variety of injuries and diseases. In 1901, Röntgen was awarded the first Nobel Prize for physics for his work in this field.

The X-ray    is a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation with a short wavelength capable of penetrating solids and ionizing gases. As they are used in medicine, X-rays are emitted from an X-ray machine and directed toward a specially treated metallic plate placed behind the patient’s body. The beam of radiation results in darkening of the X-ray plate. X-rays are slightly impeded by soft tissues, which show up as gray on the X-ray plate, whereas hard tissues, such as bone, largely block the rays, producing a light-toned “shadow.” Thus, X-rays are best used to visualize hard body structures such as teeth and bones ( [link] ). Like many forms of high energy radiation, however, X-rays are capable of damaging cells and initiating changes that can lead to cancer. This danger of excessive exposure to X-rays was not fully appreciated for many years after their widespread use.

X-ray of a hand

This photo shows an X ray image of the palmar surface of the left hand. The bones appear bright white against a gray outline of the skin of the hand. The four segments of the finger bones are clearly visible, as well as the collection of round bones that compose the wrist and connect the hand to the two bones of the forearm.
High energy electromagnetic radiation allows the internal structures of the body, such as bones, to be seen in X-rays like these. (credit: Trace Meek/flickr)

Questions & Answers

what's is reganal anatomy
Sose Reply
it is the study of interrelationships between different organs in a certain region of the body e.g abdomen
Taurai
this helps understand how these different organs work together to serve a particular body region
Taurai
hesi Tau
Precious
what is important of anatomy
Musah Reply
it's very important in any field of study or work the nurse who know anatomy well he will do good job
Abdelaziz
Can u please tell me how can I get Vanders mcqs bank
haseeb Reply
Is it possible to code a gene from two different species to come up with a specific trait?
Purityhalo
tissue,organ, system, cell
Amadi Reply
list carpal bones from proximal to distal
Meshack Reply
scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trepizium, trepizoid, capitate, hamate
Bhuvana
You are right
David
gr8 bro
Daniel
anyone explain lungs valium?
Sajid
when did the roman rule Britain
Rita Reply
what is function of the male respiratory system ?
poonam Reply
need to join this conversation
Collins
It's the same as the female respiratory system. Did you mean reproductive system. If you didn't, its for breathing.
Grace
what does increased glomerular filtration results from
Nancy Reply
what is the difference between cardiovascular and respiratory system
Bokenana Reply
cardiovascular deals with blood,blood vessels and heart while respiratory system deal with gas exchange
Erick
send me your app line
Erick
just make a class group and have online classes take turns in teaching
maz
send yo app lines so I make a group
Erick
ok
Erick
you're simply saying no to teaching one another
maz
what's an epithelial tissue
Romantic Reply
epithelial tissue are thin tissues that covers all the exposed surfaces of the body
Ireen
is anyone from high school?
Sahil
yes
Sulaiman
Final year
Royleen
med student
brian
South Africa
brian
final year too
brian
INDIA
Sahil
describe the structure of the human body in terms of six levels of organisation
Chulufya Reply
list the muscles of abdomen and their functions
HANNAH Reply
list the neck muscles and their functions
HANNAH
list the thy muscles and their functions
HANNAH
four muscles in facial expression
nah
internal obliques external obliques
Diana
describe flow of blood
osoma Reply
are arteries do pumping action to get are blood flow
isaiah
causes of occasional female muscle weakness and body pain
sammy
hey Venus ulcers description
patrick
what is conduction in the heart occur
Daud Reply
what is anatomy
Prin Reply
anatomy is the study of human body.?
Sittie
anatomy is the study of scientific human body's structure.
Sittie
Anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body and the physical relationship between its constituent parts.
Maina
Anatomy is the study of the structures of body parts
Nepi
what are the principles of public health nursing?
tribel
Anatomy is the scientific study of human body parts .
Shakinah
Anatomy is the study of structure and relationship of the body structure
Stephen
Anatomy is the study of the structure and movement of the human body
renukha
energy generation molecular transport reproduction.
Sarah
Anatomy is the study of budy structures and their relationship.
Denis
Anatomy is the scientific study of human structure
jacinta
Anatomy ie the study of the human body and its functions.
Samuel
anatomy is the study of human body
Nadiiro
is the study of the structure of the body
Nqobile
I thank you guys for your studying.
Gibson
what is the biological meaning of come?
Gibson
anatomy is the study of human structure.
Diana
I need help!!! what are toxic wastes being removed from human urinary system apart from urine?
DAVINA
urea, amonia
Orsine

Get the best Anatomy & Physiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Anatomy & Physiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask