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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Discuss the uses and drawbacks of X-ray imaging
  • Identify four modern medical imaging techniques and how they are used

For thousands of years, fear of the dead and legal sanctions limited the ability of anatomists and physicians to study the internal structures of the human body. An inability to control bleeding, infection, and pain made surgeries infrequent, and those that were performed—such as wound suturing, amputations, tooth and tumor removals, skull drilling, and cesarean births—did not greatly advance knowledge about internal anatomy. Theories about the function of the body and about disease were therefore largely based on external observations and imagination. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, however, the detailed anatomical drawings of Italian artist and anatomist Leonardo da Vinci and Flemish anatomist Andreas Vesalius were published, and interest in human anatomy began to increase. Medical schools began to teach anatomy using human dissection; although some resorted to grave robbing to obtain corpses. Laws were eventually passed that enabled students to dissect the corpses of criminals and those who donated their bodies for research. Still, it was not until the late nineteenth century that medical researchers discovered non-surgical methods to look inside the living body.

X-rays

German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen (1845–1923) was experimenting with electrical current when he discovered that a mysterious and invisible “ray” would pass through his flesh but leave an outline of his bones on a screen coated with a metal compound. In 1895, Röntgen made the first durable record of the internal parts of a living human: an “X-ray” image (as it came to be called) of his wife’s hand. Scientists around the world quickly began their own experiments with X-rays, and by 1900, X-rays were widely used to detect a variety of injuries and diseases. In 1901, Röntgen was awarded the first Nobel Prize for physics for his work in this field.

The X-ray    is a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation with a short wavelength capable of penetrating solids and ionizing gases. As they are used in medicine, X-rays are emitted from an X-ray machine and directed toward a specially treated metallic plate placed behind the patient’s body. The beam of radiation results in darkening of the X-ray plate. X-rays are slightly impeded by soft tissues, which show up as gray on the X-ray plate, whereas hard tissues, such as bone, largely block the rays, producing a light-toned “shadow.” Thus, X-rays are best used to visualize hard body structures such as teeth and bones ( [link] ). Like many forms of high energy radiation, however, X-rays are capable of damaging cells and initiating changes that can lead to cancer. This danger of excessive exposure to X-rays was not fully appreciated for many years after their widespread use.

X-ray of a hand

This photo shows an X ray image of the palmar surface of the left hand. The bones appear bright white against a gray outline of the skin of the hand. The four segments of the finger bones are clearly visible, as well as the collection of round bones that compose the wrist and connect the hand to the two bones of the forearm.
High energy electromagnetic radiation allows the internal structures of the body, such as bones, to be seen in X-rays like these. (credit: Trace Meek/flickr)

Questions & Answers

how many litres of blood does a human body have
George Reply
what is homeostasis
Antwi Reply
it is self regulating ability of the body to adjust to the surroundings
Angela
it is like maintaining an equilibrium type of environment between the inside and outside of the body, so that our body can adjust to the external environmental changes
Angela
this is the negative feedback loop of the body,.... that naturally helps to keep the body in a stable or constant internal environment.
Matthew
this is the activities in the body that keeps the internal environment of the body in equilibrium or to keep it constant.
Ikenze
list four long bones
Mary Reply
the four long bones are: tibia, fibula, femur, and humerus.
Isaac
from Zambia
Mary
femur, radius , ulnar, humerus
Om
humerus, femur, tibia and fibula
Sheryl
Humerus,redius,ulnar,in hand. Femur,tibia,fibula in leg. it is long bone.
Sneha
there is contradiction between radius ulna & tibia fibula because of the variation in the upper and lower limb of the according to growth and development of human body so humerus & femur are longer bones ( ex you can see Michael phaleps upper limb is longer than the lower limb)
Prashant
if anyone having dout so he she can please explain it to me
Prashant
which one want explain something
Dr
sir post which I have send look at it & tell is it correct or not
Prashant
about four long bones is the topic
Prashant
femur, humerus, tibia and fibula
Ikenze
how are you doing
Rekah Reply
hi everyone.
AR
Im new here, I came from the philippines. I study nursing. Im a first year student.
AR
really
Isaac
so what help do you want
Isaac
yeah I came from the philippines..and I have struggle about this subject the anatomy and physiology because I dont any books that I barrowed with. I cant afford buy books.
AR
hii
Meher
I'm from India
Jamy
I struggle with this subject
Jamy
can I ask here a question I hope you can help me because I dont have any references/books that I should see or read it.
AR
AR
Meher
you are from india nice to talk to you jamy.
AR
Alright Always drop your concerns here and they will be addressed. Thanks sister.
Isaac
nice meeting with you
Jamy
I am also from India
shiv
thank you Isaac.
AR
yes Meher?
AR
you are all india
AR
By the way I have question
AR
describe a person in anatomical position?
AR
i come from Ghana
Isaac
are you all nursing students?
AR
no I'm pharmacy student
Jamy
oh nice.
AR
yes
shiv
jamy me too
Meher
yes
shiv
yes
shiv
my name is sweety
Jamy
you have any chat group that we can talk there.
AR
Anatomical position is the description of any region or part of the body in a specific stance. In the anatomical position, the body is upright, directly facing the observer, feet flat and directed forward. The upper limbs are at the body's sides with the palms facing forward. The standard anatomic
Isaac
yes
shiv
jamy is my nick name
Jamy
I am a nursing student
Isaac
thank you Isaac
AR
Final year, level 400
Isaac
ohh what year are you now?
AR
Nice
AR
welcome madam
Isaac
do you have any chat group here
AR
describe the six levels of organization of the body and describe the major characteristics of each level?
AR
ahh its okay jammy
AR
jammy i am from kashmir nd u
Meher
It is convenient to consider the structures of the body in terms of fundamental levels of organization that increase in complexity, such as (from smallest to largest): chemicals, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and an organism.
Isaac
hi
Yaminah
am from somalia
Yaminah
5th year in medical student nice to meet ya all
Yaminah
thxs yaminah
Meher
y not.. jamy for what purpose...?
Meher
inbox me i will guide u ...?
Meher
i also dont know...?
Meher
open this app - click 'start learning' - click 'preface' - select the chat that you wanna join into I guess that is it !
Angela
Hello am from Sierra Leone
junisa
I am from Kerala
Angela
I am from india
Om
I am from Tripura
FAKE
tell the easyst way to learn anatomy
Khaliif Reply
try to draw 👌
Rahil
what
shiv
learn subject with drawing anatomy diagrams some with flow chart i dont say it is easiest way bt yes u can rember for longer period
Shakerah
ooh
shiv
hello im new here, im a nursing student
SHUGA Reply
ooh
shiv
welcome
shiv
wlcm
Rahil
dub
Ndowmi
maleria
Ndowmi
Anopheles
shiv
welcome shuga
Om
please am new here. Am a nurse awaiting to be posted .
Ntiamoah
hi I'm new here too
faleke
Feleke Sharon Welcome
FAKE
FAKE DrLUPO thank you
faleke
hello guys
Chuks
hello guys 🤗
Sneha
hello
Chuks
whose in Nigeria
Chuks
🙋🙋
faleke
what is inner breeding
Vijay Reply
you don't have any answer
Vijay
please don't waste my time
Vijay
wait
shiv
inbreeding is mating or breeding with organism that are genetically related
shiv
s
Pankaj
who this SRY
Pankaj
inner breeding is breeding among the same species of organisms
Anna
*inbreeding
Anna
yes same speciesor same genetic organism
shiv
description of the menstruation cycle
Namyalo Reply
explain the menstruation cycle
Namyalo
explain the menstrual cycle
Ugo
menstrual cycle is came due to FSH and LH
shiv
fsh
Ndowmi
This is the periodic release of waste(blood) from the reproductive organ of the females (human) for a period of some days, after which or during then, ovulation takes place, which is the release of eggs from the ovaries for fertilization by the spermatozoa.
Ikenze
Description of menestraul cycle
Amos Reply
what is the anatomy
FAKE Reply
Anatomy is study of structure of organs.
Sneha
thanks
FAKE
The scientific study of the structure of human or animal bodies.
FAKE
I was confused as to which one would be right and I asked
FAKE
My answer and you answer both are right.
Sneha
The scientific study of the human and animal internal and external structure of the body.
Ikenze
i want to improve my study i like this app i interest physiology and anatomy
Su Reply
I also like this app am really interested in learning anatomy and physiology.
Johny
I have this book with my anatomy class it's awesome! also if look at crashcourse anatomy on you tube!
AMY
what the name
isaiah
umesh. rede
Rede
what is heart and long type answer
Lalita Reply
its a organ in the body
ay
describe about hear chambers.. valves.. arteries.. veins.. circulation.. inferior/superior venacava, aorta., tricuspid valve, mitral valve. pulmonary artery/vein, how oxigenation occur,systolic presure diastolic pressure.. stroke volume,cardiac output, ets.. heart located in which place, describe it
Sanjith
if you describe what I cited up, thogh you can write a long type answer about heart
Sanjith
hi
Riyaz
autonomic functions took over
Vanarith Reply
What did they take over?
Eric
what is the average volume of blood in men and why does it varrie from women?
Esther Reply
what is the average volume of blood in men
Esther
5to6liter
Sarita
5to6liter dt
Sarita
umesh. rede
Rede
estimated at 5.5litres
Ikenze
what is the definition of anatomy
Noriah Reply
Search google
killer
^of
chieng
The study of the structure or internal workings of something. "Machiavelli's anatomy 
Eric

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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