Anatomy & Physiology 25 The Urinary System Essay


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Anatomy & Physiology 25 The Urinary System
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Sample Questions from the Anatomy & Physiology 25 The Urinary System Essay Flashcards

Question: Name the structures found in the renal hilum.


The structures found in the renal hilum are arteries, veins, ureters, lymphatics, and nerves.

Question: What are the major structures comprising the filtration membrane?


The major structures comprising the filtration membrane are fenestrations and podocyte fenestra, fused basement membrane, and filtration slits.

Question: What anatomical structures provide protection to the kidney?


Retroperitoneal anchoring, renal fat pads, and ribs provide protection to the kidney.

Question: Name at least five symptoms of kidney failure.


Symptoms of kidney failure are weakness, lethargy, shortness of breath, widespread edema, anemia, metabolic acidosis or alkalosis, heart arrhythmias, uremia, loss of appetite, fatigue, excessive urination, and oliguria.

Question: Which structures make up the renal corpuscle?


The structures that make up the renal corpuscle are the glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, and PCT.

Question: Describe how forceful urination is accomplished.


Forceful urination is accomplished by contraction of abdominal muscles.

Question: Why are females more likely to contract bladder infections than males?


The longer urethra of males means bacteria must travel farther to the bladder to cause an infection.

Question: What is suggested by the presence of white blood cells found in the urine?


The presence of white blood cells found in the urine suggests urinary tract infection.

Question: Both diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus produce large urine volumes, but how would other characteristics of the urine differ between the two diseases?


Diabetes mellitus would result in urine containing glucose, and diabetes insipidus would produce urine with very low osmolarity (low specific gravity, dilute).

Question: How does the renal portal system differ from the hypothalamo-hypophyseal and digestive portal systems?


The renal portal system has an artery between the first and second capillary bed. The others have a vein.

Question: Give the formula for net filtration pressure.


Net filtration pressure (NFP) = glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure (GBHP) - [capsular hydrostatic pressure (CHP) + blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP)]

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Source:  OpenStax College. Anatomy & Physiology, OpenStax-CNX Web site., Jun 11, 2014
George Turner
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