Anatomy & Physiology 05 Integumentary System

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Girl kayaking

This picture shows a girl kayaking in the ocean.
Without joints, body movements would be impossible. (credit: Graham Richardson/flickr.com)

Chapter objectives

After this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Discuss both functional and structural classifications for body joints
  • Describe the characteristic features for fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints and give examples of each
  • Define and identify the different body movements
  • Discuss the structure of specific body joints and the movements allowed by each
  • Explain the development of body joints

The adult human body has 206 bones, and with the exception of the hyoid bone in the neck, each bone is connected to at least one other bone. Joints are the location where bones come together. Many joints allow for movement between the bones. At these joints, the articulating surfaces of the adjacent bones can move smoothly against each other. However, the bones of other joints may be joined to each other by connective tissue or cartilage. These joints are designed for stability and provide for little or no movement. Importantly, joint stability and movement are related to each other. This means that stable joints allow for little or no mobility between the adjacent bones. Conversely, joints that provide the most movement between bones are the least stable. Understanding the relationship between joint structure and function will help to explain why particular types of joints are found in certain areas of the body.

The articulating surfaces of bones at stable types of joints, with little or no mobility, are strongly united to each other. For example, most of the joints of the skull are held together by fibrous connective tissue and do not allow for movement between the adjacent bones. This lack of mobility is important, because the skull bones serve to protect the brain. Similarly, other joints united by fibrous connective tissue allow for very little movement, which provides stability and weight-bearing support for the body. For example, the tibia and fibula of the leg are tightly united to give stability to the body when standing. At other joints, the bones are held together by cartilage, which permits limited movements between the bones. Thus, the joints of the vertebral column only allow for small movements between adjacent vertebrae, but when added together, these movements provide the flexibility that allows your body to twist, or bend to the front, back, or side. In contrast, at joints that allow for wide ranges of motion, the articulating surfaces of the bones are not directly united to each other. Instead, these surfaces are enclosed within a space filled with lubricating fluid, which allows the bones to move smoothly against each other. These joints provide greater mobility, but since the bones are free to move in relation to each other, the joint is less stable. Most of the joints between the bones of the appendicular skeleton are this freely moveable type of joint. These joints allow the muscles of the body to pull on a bone and thereby produce movement of that body region. Your ability to kick a soccer ball, pick up a fork, and dance the tango depend on mobility at these types of joints.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Anatomy & Physiology 05 Integumentary System
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20 Pages
2014
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the Anatomy & Physiology 05 Integumentary System Quiz

Question: The papillary and reticular layers of the dermis are composed mainly of ________.

Choices:

melanocytes

keratinocytes

connective tissue

adipose tissue

Question: Which of the following is not a function of the hypodermis?

Choices:

protects underlying organs

helps maintain body temperature

source of blood vessels in the epidermis

a site to long-term energy storage

Question: Eccrine sweat glands ________.

Choices:

are present on hair

are present in the skin throughout the body and produce watery sweat

produce sebum

act as a moisturizer

Question: Sebaceous glands ________.

Choices:

are a type of sweat gland

are associated with hair follicles

may function in response to touch

release a watery solution of salt and metabolic waste

Question: Collagen lends ________ to the skin.

Choices:

elasticity

structure

color

UV protection

Question: In response to stimuli from the sympathetic nervous system, the arrector pili ________.

Choices:

are glands on the skin surface

can lead to excessive sweating

are responsible for goose bumps

secrete sebum

Question: The hair matrix contains ________.

Choices:

the hair follicle

the hair shaft

the glassy membrane

a layer of basal cells

Question: Similar to the hair, nails grow continuously throughout our lives. Which of the following is furthest from the nail growth center?

Choices:

nail bed

hyponychium

nail root

eponychium

Question: Langerhans cells are commonly found in the ________.

Choices:

stratum spinosum

stratum corneum

stratum granulosum

stratum basale

Question: In humans, exposure of the skin to sunlight is required for ________.

Choices:

vitamin D synthesis

arteriole constriction

folate production

thermoregulation

Question: The papillary layer of the dermis is most closely associated with which layer of the epidermis?

Choices:

stratum spinosum

stratum corneum

stratum granulosum

stratum basale

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Disclaimer:  This course does NOT provide the education or experience needed for the diagnosing or treating any medical condition,

all site contents are provided as general information only and should not be taken as medical advice.

Source:  Anatomy & Physiology MCQ. OpenStax College. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/
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