Anatomy & Physiology 17 Endocrine System Essay


Access: Public

Start FlashCards Download PDF Flashcards Series

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Flashcards PDF eBook: 
Anatomy & Physiology 17 Endocrine System Essay
Download Endocrine System Flashcards PDF eBook
28 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Anatomy & Physiology 17 Endocrine System Essay Flashcards

Question: Compare and contrast the signaling events involved with the second messengers cAMP and IP3.


In both cAMP and IP3-calcium signaling, a hormone binds to a cell membrane hormone receptor that is coupled to a G protein. The G protein becomes activated when the hormone binds. In the case of cAMP signaling, the activated G protein activates adenylyl cyclase, which causes ATP to be converted to cAMP. This second messenger can then initiate other signaling events, such as a phosphorylation cascade. In the case of IP3-calcium signaling, the activated G protein activates phospholipase C, which cleaves a membrane phospholipid compound into DAG and IP3. IP3 causes the release of calcium, another second messenger, from intracellular stores. This causes further signaling events.

Question: Visit this link ( to view an animation describing the function of the hormone melatonin. What should you avoid doing in the middle of your sleep cycle that would lower melatonin?


Turning on the lights.

Question: Compare and contrast the anatomical relationship of the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus.


The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus by vasculature, which allows regulating hormones from the hypothalamus to travel to the anterior pituitary. In contrast, the posterior lobe is connected to the hypothalamus by a bridge of nerve axons called the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract, along which the hypothalamus sends hormones produced by hypothalamic nerve cell bodies to the posterior pituitary for storage and release into the circulation.

Question: True or false: Neurotransmitters are a special class of paracrines. Explain your answer.


True. Neurotransmitters can be classified as paracrines because, upon their release from a neuron's axon terminals, they travel across a microscopically small cleft to exert their effect on a nearby neuron or muscle cell.

Question: Visit this link ( to watch an animation of the events that occur when a hormone binds to a cell membrane receptor. What is the secondary messenger made by adenylyl cyclase during the activation of liver cells by epinephrine?



Question: Visit this link ( to watch an animation showing the role of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. Which hormone is released by the pituitary to stimulate the thyroid gland?


Thyroid-stimulating hormone.

Question: Visit this link ( to view an animation describing the location and function of the pancreas. What goes wrong in the function of insulin in type 2 diabetes?


Insulin is overproduced.

Question: Describe the mechanism of hormone response resulting from the binding of a hormone with an intracellular receptor.


An intracellular hormone receptor is located within the cell. A hydrophobic hormone diffuses through the cell membrane and binds to the intracellular hormone receptor, which may be in the cytosol or in the cell nucleus. This hormone-receptor complex binds to a segment of DNA. This initiates the transcription of a target gene, the end result of which is protein assembly and the hormonal response.

Question: Visit this link ( to view an animation describing the location and function of the adrenal glands. Which hormone produced by the adrenal glands is responsible for mobilization of energy stores?



Question: Compare and contrast endocrine and exocrine glands.


Endocrine glands are ductless. They release their secretion into the surrounding fluid, from which it enters the bloodstream or lymph to travel to distant cells. Moreover, the secretions of endocrine glands are hormones. Exocrine glands release their secretions through a duct that delivers the secretion to the target location. Moreover, the secretions of exocrine glands are not hormones, but compounds that have an immediate physiologic function. For example, pancreatic juice contains enzymes that help digest food.

Question: Describe several main differences in the communication methods used by the endocrine system and the nervous system.


The endocrine system uses chemical signals called hormones to convey information from one part of the body to a distant part of the body. Hormones are released from the endocrine cell into the extracellular environment, but then travel in the bloodstream to target tissues. This communication and response can take seconds to days. In contrast, neurons transmit electrical signals along their axons. At the axon terminal, the electrical signal prompts the release of a chemical signal called a neurotransmitter that carries the message across the synaptic cleft to elicit a response in the neighboring cell. This method of communication is nearly instantaneous, of very brief duration, and is highly specific.

Start FlashCards Download PDF Flashcards Series

This course does NOT provide the education or experience needed for the diagnosing or treating any medical condition, all site contents are provided as general information only and should not be taken as medical advice.

Source:  OpenStax College. Anatomy & Physiology, OpenStax-CNX Web site., Jun 11, 2014
Kimberly Nichols
Start Test
Mike Wolf
Start Exam
Robert Murphy
Start Test
Copy and paste the following HTML code into your website or blog.
<iframe src="" width="600" height="600" frameborder="0" marginwidth="0" marginheight="0" scrolling="yes" style="border:1px solid #CCC; border-width:1px 1px 0; margin-bottom:5px" allowfullscreen webkitallowfullscreen mozallowfullscreen> </iframe>