Anatomy & Physiology 08 Appendicular Skeleton


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Anatomy & Physiology 08 Appendicular Skeleton
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Sample Questions from the Anatomy & Physiology 08 Appendicular Skeleton Flashcards

Question: Discuss two possible injuries of the pectoral girdle that may occur following a strong blow to the shoulder or a hard fall onto an outstretched hand.


A blow to the shoulder or falling onto an outstretched hand passes strong forces through the scapula to the clavicle and sternum. A hard fall may thus cause a fracture of the clavicle (broken collarbone) or may injure the ligaments of the acromioclavicular joint. In a severe case, the coracoclavicular ligament may also rupture, resulting in complete dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint (a "shoulder separation").

Question: Visit this site ( to perform a virtual knee replacement surgery. The prosthetic knee components must be properly aligned to function properly. How is this alignment ensured?


Metal cutting jigs are attached to the bones to ensure that the bones are cut properly prior to the attachment of prosthetic components.

Question: Visit this site ( to explore the bones and joints of the hand. What are the three arches of the hand, and what is the importance of these during the gripping of an object?


The hand has a proximal transverse arch, a distal transverse arch, and a longitudinal arch. These allow the hand to conform to objects being held. These arches maximize the amount of surface contact between the hand and object, which enhances stability and increases sensory input.

Question: Watch this video ( for a 3-D view of the pelvis and its associated ligaments. What is the large opening in the bony pelvis, located between the ischium and pubic regions, and what two parts of the pubis contribute to the formation of this opening?


The obturator foramen is located between the ischium and the pubis. The superior and inferior pubic rami contribute to the boundaries of the obturator foramen.

Question: Describe the shape and palpable line formed by the clavicle and scapula.


The clavicle extends laterally across the anterior shoulder and can be palpated along its entire length. At its lateral end, the clavicle articulates with the acromion of the scapula, which forms the bony tip of the shoulder. The acromion is continuous with the spine of the scapula, which can be palpated medially and posteriorly along its length. Together, the clavicle, acromion, and spine of the scapula form a V-shaped line that serves as an important area for muscle attachment.

Question: Watch this video ( to learn about a Colles fracture, a break of the distal radius, usually caused by falling onto an outstretched hand. When would surgery be required and how would the fracture be repaired in this case?


Surgery may be required if the fracture is unstable, meaning that the broken ends of the radius won't stay in place to allow for proper healing. In this case, metal plates and screws can be used to stabilize the fractured bone.

Question: Watch this video ( to view how a fracture of the mid-femur is surgically repaired. How are the two portions of the broken femur stabilized during surgical repair of a fractured femur?


A hole is drilled into the greater trochanter, the bone marrow (medullary) space inside the femur is enlarged, and finally an intramedullary rod is inserted into the femur. This rod is then anchored to the bone with screws.

Question: Watch this animation ( to follow the development and growth of the upper and lower limb buds. On what days of embryonic development do these events occur: (a) first appearance of the upper limb bud (limb ridge); (b) the flattening of the distal limb to form the handplate or footplate; and (c) the beginning of limb rotation?


(a) The upper limb bud initially appears on day 26 as the upper limb ridge. This becomes the upper limb bud by day 28. (b) The handplate and footplate appear at day 36. (c) Rotation of the upper and lower limbs begins during the seventh week (day 48).

Question: Use this tutorial ( to review the bones of the foot. Which tarsal bones are in the proximal, intermediate, and distal groups?


The proximal group of tarsal bones includes the calcaneus and talus bones, the navicular bone is intermediate, and the distal group consists of the cuboid bone plus the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiform bones.

Question: View this link ( to learn about a bunion, a localized swelling on the medial side of the foot, next to the first metatarsophalangeal joint, at the base of the big toe. What is a bunion and what type of shoe is most likely to cause this to develop?


A bunion results from the deviation of the big toe toward the second toe, which causes the distal end of the first metatarsal bone to stick out. A bunion may also be caused by prolonged pressure on the foot from pointed shoes with a narrow toe box that compresses the big toe and pushes it toward the second toe.

Question: Watch this video ( to see how fractures of the distal radius bone can affect the wrist joint. Explain the problems that may occur if a fracture of the distal radius involves the joint surface of the radiocarpal joint of the wrist.


A fracture through the joint surface of the distal radius may make the articulating surface of the radius rough or jagged. This can then cause painful movements involving this joint and the early development of arthritis. Surgery can return the joint surface to its original smoothness, thus allowing for the return of normal function.

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Disclaimer:  This course does NOT provide the education or experience needed for the diagnosing or treating any medical condition, all site contents are provided as general information only and should not be taken as medical advice.
Source:  OpenStax College. Anatomy & Physiology, OpenStax-CNX Web site., Jun 11, 2014
Madison Christian
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