Anatomy & Physiology 21 Lymphatic & Immune Sys.


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Anatomy & Physiology 21 Lymphatic & Immune Sys
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16 Pages
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Sample Questions from the Anatomy & Physiology 21 Lymphatic & Immune Sys. Flashcards

Question: Visit this website ( for an overview of the lymphatic system. What are the three main components of the lymphatic system?


The three main components are the lymph vessels, the lymph nodes, and the lymph.

Question: Describe the process of inflammation in an area that has been traumatized, but not infected.


The cell debris and damaged cells induce macrophages to begin to clean them up. Macrophages release cytokines that attract neutrophils, followed by more macrophages. Other mediators released by mast cells increase blood flow to the area and also vascular permeability, allowing the recruited cells to get from the blood to the site of infection, where they can phagocytose the dead cells and debris, preparing the site for wound repair.

Question: Describe how secondary B cell responses are developed.


B cells activated during a primary response differentiate either into terminally differentiated plasma cells or into memory B cells. These memory B cells are what respond during a secondary or memory antibody response.

Question: Visit this website ( to learn about the many different cell types in the immune system and their very specialized jobs. What is the role of the dendritic cell in infection by HIV?


The dendritic cell transports the virus to a lymph node.

Question: Describe clonal selection and expansion.


Antigen-specific clones are stimulated as their antigen receptor binds to antigen. They are then activated and proliferate, expanding their numbers. The result is a large number of antigen-specific lymphocytes.

Question: Describe the processing and presentation of an intracellular antigen.


The antigen is digested by the proteasome, brought into the endoplasmic reticulum by the TAP transporter system, where it binds to class I MHC molecules. These are taken to the cell surface by transport vesicles.

Question: Describe the role of IgM in immunity.


IgM is an antigen receptor on naïve B cells. Upon activation, naïve B cells make IgM first. IgM is good at binding complement and thus has good antibacterial effects. IgM is replaced with other classes of antibodies later on in the primary response due to class switching.

Question: Describe the flow of lymph from its origins in interstitial fluid to its emptying into the venous bloodstream.


The lymph enters through lymphatic capillaries, and then into larger lymphatic vessels. The lymph can only go in one direction due to valves in the vessels. The larger lymphatics merge to form trunks that enter into the blood via lymphatic ducts.

Question: Immunity can be acquired in an active or passive way, and it can be natural or artificial. Watch this video ( to see an animated discussion of passive and active immunity. What is an example of natural immunity acquired passively?


Breastfeeding is an example of natural immunity acquired passively.

Question: Describe two early induced responses and what pathogens they affect.


Interferons are produced in virally infected cells and cause them to secrete signals for surrounding cells to make antiviral proteins. C-reactive protein is induced to be made by the liver and will opsonize certain species of bacteria.

Question: Visit this website ( to learn about phagocyte chemotaxis. Phagocyte chemotaxis is the movement of phagocytes according to the secretion of chemical messengers in the form of interleukins and other chemokines. By what means does a phagocyte destroy a bacterium that it has ingested?


The bacterium is digested by the phagocyte's digestive enzymes (contained in its lysosomes).

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Disclaimer:  This course does NOT provide the education or experience needed for the diagnosing or treating any medical condition, all site contents are provided as general information only and should not be taken as medical advice.
Source:  OpenStax College. Anatomy & Physiology, OpenStax-CNX Web site., Jun 11, 2014
Yasser Ibrahim
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Edgar Delgado
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