Anatomy & Physiology 26 Fluid Electrolyte Acid.


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Anatomy & Physiology 26 Fluid Electrolyte Acid
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Sample Questions from the Anatomy & Physiology 26 Fluid Electrolyte Acid. Flashcards

Question: Describe the conservation of bicarbonate ions in the renal system.


Bicarbonate ions are freely filtered through the glomerulus. They cannot pass freely into the renal tubular cells and must be converted into CO2 in the filtrate, which can pass through the cell membrane. Sodium ions are reabsorbed at the membrane, and hydrogen ions are expelled into the filtrate. The hydrogen ions combine with bicarbonate, forming carbonic acid, which dissociates into CO2 gas and water. The gas diffuses into the renal cells where carbonic anhydrase catalyzes its conversion back into a bicarbonate ion, which enters the blood.

Question: How can one have an imbalance in a substance, but not actually have elevated or deficient levels of that substance in the body?


Without having an absolute excess or deficiency of a substance, one can have too much or too little of that substance in a given compartment. Such a relative increase or decrease is due to a redistribution of water or the ion in the body's compartments. This may be due to the loss of water in the blood, leading to a hemoconcentration or dilution of the ion in tissues due to edema.

Question: Watch this video ( to see a demonstration of the effect altitude has on blood pH. What effect does high altitude have on blood pH, and why?


Because oxygen is reduced, the respiratory rate increases to accommodate, and hyperventilation removes CO2 faster than normal, resulting in alkalosis.

Question: Watch this video ( to see an explanation of the effect of seawater on humans. What effect does drinking seawater have on the body?


Drinking seawater dehydrates the body as the body must pass sodium through the kidneys, and water follows.

Question: How is fluid moved from compartment to compartment?


Fluid is moved by a combination of osmotic and hydrostatic pressures. The osmotic pressure results from differences in solute concentrations across cell membranes. Hydrostatic pressure results from the pressure of blood as it enters a capillary system, forcing some fluid out of the vessel into the surrounding tissues.

Question: Why is it important for the amount of water intake to equal the amount of water output?


Any imbalance of water entering or leaving the body will create an osmotic imbalance that will adversely affect cell and tissue function.

Question: Watch this video ( to see an explanation of the dynamics of fluid in the body's compartments. What happens in tissues when capillary blood pressure is less than osmotic pressure?


Fluid enters the capillaries from interstitial spaces.

Question: Explain how the CO2 generated by cells and exhaled in the lungs is carried as bicarbonate in the blood.


Very little of the carbon dioxide in the blood is carried dissolved in the plasma. It is transformed into carbonic acid and then into bicarbonate in order to mix in plasma for transportation to the lungs, where it reverts back to its gaseous form.

Question: Plasma contains more sodium than chloride. How can this be if individual ions of sodium and chloride exactly balance each other out, and plasma is electrically neutral?


There are additional negatively charged molecules in plasma besides chloride. The additional sodium balances the total negative charges.

Question: Describe the effect of ADH on renal collecting tubules.


ADH constricts the arterioles in the peripheral circulation, limiting blood to the extremities and increasing the blood supply to the core of the body. ADH also causes the epithelial cells lining the renal collecting tubules to move water channel proteins called aquaporins from the sides of the cells to the apical surface. This greatly increases the passage of water from the renal filtrate through the wall of the collecting tubule as well as the reabsorption of water into the bloodstream.

Question: Watch this video ( to learn more about body fluids, fluid compartments, and electrolytes. When blood volume decreases due to sweating, from what source is water taken in by the blood?


The interstitial fluid (IF).

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Disclaimer:  This course does NOT provide the education or experience needed for the diagnosing or treating any medical condition, all site contents are provided as general information only and should not be taken as a medical advice.
Source:  OpenStax College. Anatomy & Physiology, OpenStax-CNX Web site., Jun 11, 2014
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