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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Flashcards PDF eBook: 
Anatomy & Physiology 01 Human Body Essay Quiz
Download Human Body Flashcards PDF eBook
19 Pages
2014
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the Anatomy & Physiology 01 Human Body Essay Quiz Flashcards

Question: For whom would an appreciation of the structural characteristics of the human heart come more easily: an alien who lands on Earth, abducts a human, and dissects his heart, or an anatomy and physiology student performing a dissection of the heart on her very first day of class? Why?

Choices:

A student would more readily appreciate the structures revealed in the dissection. Even though the student has not yet studied the workings of the heart and blood vessels in her class, she has experienced her heart beating every moment of her life, has probably felt her pulse, and likely has at least a basic understanding of the role of the heart in pumping blood throughout her body. This understanding of the heart's function (physiology) would support her study of the heart's form (anatomy).

Question: The female ovaries and the male testes are a part of which body system? Can these organs be members of more than one organ system? Why or why not?

Choices:

The female ovaries and the male testes are parts of the reproductive system. But they also secrete hormones, as does the endocrine system, therefore ovaries and testes function within both the endocrine and reproductive systems.

Question: Name the six levels of organization of the human body.

Choices:

Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism.

Question: View this animation (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/metabolic) to learn more about metabolic processes. What kind of catabolism occurs in the heart?

Choices:

Fatty acid catabolism.

Question: A patient undergoing an MRI is surrounded by a tubeshaped scanner. Watch this video (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/MRI) to learn more about MRIs. What is the function of magnets in an MRI?

Choices:

The magnets induce tissue to emit radio signals that can show differences between different types of tissue.

Question: Identify three different ways that growth can occur in the human body.

Choices:

Growth can occur by increasing the number of existing cells, increasing the size of existing cells, or increasing the amount of non-cellular material around cells.

Question: A CT or CAT scan relies on a circling scanner that revolves around the patient's body. Watch this video (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/CATscan) to learn more about CT and CAT scans. What type of radiation does a CT scanner use?

Choices:

X-rays.

Question: Water concentration in the body is critical for proper functioning. A person's body retains very tight control on water levels without conscious control by the person. Watch this video (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/H2Ocon) to learn more about water concentration in the body. Which organ has primary control over the amount of water in the body?

Choices:

The kidneys.

Question: PET relies on radioactive substances administered several minutes before the scan. Watch this video (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/PET) to learn more about PET. How is PET used in chemotherapy?

Choices:

PET scans can indicate how patients are responding to chemotherapy.

Question: Explain why the smell of smoke when you are sitting at a campfire does not trigger alarm, but the smell of smoke in your residence hall does.

Choices:

When you are sitting at a campfire, your sense of smell adapts to the smell of smoke. Only if that smell were to suddenly and dramatically intensify would you be likely to notice and respond. In contrast, the smell of even a trace of smoke would be new and highly unusual in your residence hall, and would be perceived as danger.

Question: Name at least three reasons to study anatomy and physiology.

Choices:

An understanding of anatomy and physiology is essential for any career in the health professions. It can also help you make choices that promote your health, respond appropriately to signs of illness, make sense of health-related news, and help you in your roles as a parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, and caregiver.

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Disclaimer:  This course does NOT provide the education or experience needed for the diagnosing or treating any medical condition, all site contents are provided as general information only and should not be taken as a medical advice.
Source:  Human Body OpenStax College. Anatomy & Physiology, OpenStax-CNX Web site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 11, 2014
Anindyo Mukhopadhyay
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