Anatomy & Physiology 20 Blood Vessels Circulat.


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Anatomy & Physiology 20 Blood Vessels Circulat
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Sample Questions from the Anatomy & Physiology 20 Blood Vessels Circulat. Flashcards

Question: Watch this video ( to explore capillaries and how they function in the body. Capillaries are never more than 100 micrometers away. What is the main component of interstitial fluid?



Question: Listen to this CDC podcast ( to learn about hypertension, often described as a "silent killer." What steps can you take to reduce your risk of a heart attack or stroke?


Take medications as prescribed, eat a healthy diet, exercise, and don't smoke.

Question: An obese patient comes to the clinic complaining of swollen feet and ankles, fatigue, shortness of breath, and often feeling "spaced out." She is a cashier in a grocery store, a job that requires her to stand all day. Outside of work, she engages in no physical activity. She confesses that, because of her weight, she finds even walking uncomfortable. Explain how the skeletal muscle pump might play a role in this patient's signs and symptoms.


People who stand upright all day and are inactive overall have very little skeletal muscle activity in the legs. Pooling of blood in the legs and feet is common. Venous return to the heart is reduced, a condition that in turn reduces cardiac output and therefore oxygenation of tissues throughout the body. This could at least partially account for the patient's fatigue and shortness of breath, as well as her "spaced out" feeling, which commonly reflects reduced oxygen to the brain.

Question: Arterioles are often referred to as resistance vessels. Why?


Arterioles receive blood from arteries, which are vessels with a much larger lumen. As their own lumen averages just 30 micrometers or less, arterioles are critical in slowing down-or resisting-blood flow. The arterioles can also constrict or dilate, which varies their resistance, to help distribute blood flow to the tissues.

Question: Nitric oxide is broken down very quickly after its release. Why?


Nitric oxide is a very powerful local vasodilator that is important in the autoregulation of tissue perfusion. If it were not broken down very quickly after its release, blood flow to the region could exceed metabolic needs.

Question: A patient arrives at the emergency department with dangerously low blood pressure. The patient's blood colloid osmotic pressure is normal. How would you expect this situation to affect the patient's net filtration pressure?


The patient's blood would flow more sluggishly from the arteriole into the capillary bed. Thus, the patient's capillary hydrostatic pressure would be below the normal 35 mm Hg at the arterial end. At the same time, the patient's blood colloidal osmotic pressure is normal-about 25 mm Hg. Thus, even at the arterial end of the capillary bed, the net filtration pressure would be below 10 mm Hg, and an abnormally reduced level of filtration would occur. In fact, reabsorption might begin to occur by the midpoint of the capillary bed.

Question: True or false? The plasma proteins suspended in blood cross the capillary cell membrane and enter the tissue fluid via facilitated diffusion. Explain your thinking.


False. The plasma proteins suspended in blood cannot cross the semipermeable capillary cell membrane, and so they remain in the plasma within the vessel, where they account for the blood colloid osmotic pressure.

Question: A blood vessel with a few smooth muscle fibers and connective tissue, and only a very thin tunica externa conducts blood toward the heart. What type of vessel is this?


This is a venule.

Question: A patient arrives in the emergency department with a blood pressure of 70/45 confused and complaining of thirst. Why?


This blood pressure is insufficient to circulate blood throughout the patient's body and maintain adequate perfusion of the patient's tissues. Ischemia would prompt hypoxia, including to the brain, prompting confusion. The low blood pressure would also trigger the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism, and release of aldosterone would stimulate the thirst mechanism in the hypothalamus.

Question: Cocaine use causes vasoconstriction. Is this likely to increase or decrease blood pressure, and why?


Vasoconstriction causes the lumens of blood vessels to narrow. This increases the pressure of the blood flowing within the vessel.

Question: You measure a patient's blood pressure at 130/85. Calculate the patient's pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure. Determine whether each pressure is low, normal, or high.


The patient's pulse pressure is 130 - 85 = 45 mm Hg. Generally, a pulse pressure should be at least 25 percent of the systolic pressure, but not more than 100 mm Hg. Since 25 percent of 130 = 32.5, the patient's pulse pressure of 45 is normal. The patient's mean arterial pressure is 85 + 1/3 (45) = 85 + 15 = 100. Normally, the mean arterial blood pressure falls within the range of 70 - 110 mmHg, so 100 is normal.

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Disclaimer:  This course does NOT provide the education or experience needed for the diagnosing or treating any medical condition, all site contents are provided as general information only and should not be taken as medical advice.
Source:  OpenStax College. Anatomy & Physiology, OpenStax-CNX Web site., Jun 11, 2014
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