Anatomy & Physiology 07 Axial Skeleton


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A body in motion

This photo shows a man executing a complicated yoga pose.
The muscular system allows us to move, flex and contort our bodies. Practicing yoga, as pictured here, is a good example of the voluntary use of the muscular system. (credit: Dmitry Yanchylenko)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Describe the actions and roles of agonists and antagonists
  • Explain the structure and organization of muscle fascicles and their role in generating force
  • Explain the criteria used to name skeletal muscles
  • Identify the skeletal muscles and their actions on the skeleton and soft tissues of the body
  • Identify the origins and insertions of skeletal muscles and the prime movements

Think about the things that you do each day—talking, walking, sitting, standing, and running—all of these activities require movement of particular skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscles are even used during sleep. The diaphragm is a sheet of skeletal muscle that has to contract and relax for you to breathe day and night. If you recall from your study of the skeletal system and joints, body movement occurs around the joints in the body. The focus of this chapter is on skeletal muscle organization. The system to name skeletal muscles will be explained; in some cases, the muscle is named by its shape, and in other cases it is named by its location or attachments to the skeleton. If you understand the meaning of the name of the muscle, often it will help you remember its location and/or what it does. This chapter also will describe how skeletal muscles are arranged to accomplish movement, and how other muscles may assist, or be arranged on the skeleton to resist or carry out the opposite movement. The actions of the skeletal muscles will be covered in a regional manner, working from the head down to the toes.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Anatomy & Physiology 07 Axial Skeleton
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20 Pages
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Sample Questions from the Anatomy & Physiology 07 Axial Skeleton Quiz

Question: Which of the following is part of the axial skeleton?


shoulder bones

thigh bone

foot bones

vertebral column

Question: Parts of the sphenoid bone include the ________.


sella turcica

squamous portion


zygomatic process

Question: Which of the following is a function of the axial skeleton?


allows for movement of the wrist and hand

protects nerves and blood vessels at the elbow

supports trunk of body

allows for movements of the ankle and foot

Question: The primary curvatures of the vertebral column ________.


include the lumbar curve

are remnants of the original fetal curvature

include the cervical curve

develop after the time of birth

Question: The paranasal sinuses are ________.


air-filled spaces found within the frontal, maxilla, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones only

air-filled spaces found within all bones of the skull

not connected to the nasal cavity

divided at the midline by the nasal septum

Question: The middle cranial fossa ________.


is bounded anteriorly by the petrous ridge

is bounded posteriorly by the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone

is divided at the midline by a small area of the ethmoid bone

has the foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, and foramen spinosum

Question: The cervical region of the vertebral column consists of ________.


seven vertebrae

12 vertebrae

five vertebrae

a single bone derived from the fusion of five vertebrae

Question: Which of the following is a bone of the brain case?


parietal bone

zygomatic bone

maxillary bone

lacrimal bone

Question: The bony openings of the skull include the ________.


carotid canal, which is located in the anterior cranial fossa

superior orbital fissure, which is located at the superior margin of the anterior orbit

mental foramen, which is located just below the orbit

hypoglossal canal, which is located in the posterior cranial fossa

Question: The lambdoid suture joins the parietal bone to the ________.


frontal bone

occipital bone

other parietal bone

temporal bone

Question: The axial skeleton ________.


consists of 126 bones

forms the vertical axis of the body

includes all bones of the body trunk and limbs

includes only the bones of the lower limbs

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Disclaimer:  This course does NOT provide the education or experience needed for the diagnosing or treating any medical condition, all site contents are provided as general information only and should not be taken as medical advice.
Source:  Anatomy & Physiology MCQ. OpenStax College.
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