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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Square a binomial using the Binomial Squares Pattern
  • Multiply conjugates using the Product of Conjugates Pattern
  • Recognize and use the appropriate special product pattern

Before you get started, take this readiness quiz.

  1. Simplify: 9 2 ( −9 ) 2 9 2 .
    If you missed this problem, review [link] .

Square a binomial using the binomial squares pattern

Mathematicians like to look for patterns that will make their work easier. A good example of this is squaring binomials. While you can always get the product by writing the binomial    twice and using the methods of the last section, there is less work to do if you learn to use a pattern.

Let’s start by looking at ( x + 9 ) 2 . What does this mean? ( x + 9 ) 2 It means to multiply ( x + 9 ) by itself. ( x + 9 ) ( x + 9 ) Then, using FOIL, we get: x 2 + 9 x + 9 x + 81 Combining like terms gives: x 2 + 18 x + 81 Here’s another one: ( y 7 ) 2 Multiply ( y 7 ) by itself. ( y 7 ) ( y 7 ) Using FOIL, we get: y 2 7 y 7 y + 49 And combining like terms: y 2 14 y + 49 And one more: ( 2 x + 3 ) 2 Multiply. ( 2 x + 3 ) ( 2 x + 3 ) Use FOIL: 4 x 2 + 6 x + 6 x + 9 Combine like terms. 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9

Look at these results. Do you see any patterns?

What about the number of terms? In each example we squared a binomial and the result was a trinomial    .

( a + b ) 2 = ____ + ____ + ____

Now look at the first term in each result. Where did it come from?

This figure has three columns. The first column contains the expression x plus 9, in parentheses, squared. Below this is the product of x plus 9 and x plus 9. Below this is x squared plus 9x plus 9x plus 81. Below this is x squared plus 18x plus 81. The second column contains the expression y minus 7, in parentheses, squared. Below this is the product of y minus 7 and y minus 7. Below this is y squared minus 7y minus 7y plus 49. Below this is the expression y squared minus 14y plus 49. The third column contains the expression 2x plus 3, in parentheses, squared. Below this is the product of 2x plus 3 and 2x plus 3. Below this is 4x squared plus 6x plus 6x plus 9. Below this is 4x squared plus 12x plus 9.

The first term is the product of the first terms of each binomial. Since the binomials are identical, it is just the square of the first term!

( a + b ) 2 = a 2 + ____ + ____

To get the first term of the product, square the first term .

Where did the last term come from? Look at the examples and find the pattern.

The last term is the product of the last terms, which is the square of the last term.

( a + b ) 2 = ____ + ____ + b 2

To get the last term of the product, square the last term .

Finally, look at the middle term . Notice it came from adding the “outer” and the “inner” terms—which are both the same! So the middle term is double the product of the two terms of the binomial.

( a + b ) 2 = ____ + 2 a b + ____ ( a b ) 2 = ____ 2 a b + ____

To get the middle term of the product, multiply the terms and double their product .

Putting it all together:

Binomial squares pattern

If a and b are real numbers,

( a + b ) 2 = a 2 + 2 a b + b 2 ( a b ) 2 = a 2 2 a b + b 2
No Alt Text

To square a binomial:

  • square the first term
  • square the last term
  • double their product

A number example helps verify the pattern.

( 10 + 4 ) 2 Square the first term. 10 2 + ___ + ___ Square the last term. 10 2 + ___ + 4 2 Double their product. 10 2 + 2 · 10 · 4 + 4 2 Simplify. 100 + 80 + 16 Simplify. 196

To multiply ( 10 + 4 ) 2 usually you’d follow the Order of Operations.

( 10 + 4 ) 2 ( 14 ) 2 196

The pattern works!

Multiply: ( x + 5 ) 2 .

Solution

x plus 5, in parentheses, squared. Above the expression is the general formula a plus b, in parentheses, squared.
Square the first term. x squared plus blank plus blank. Above the expression is the general form a squared plus 2 a b plus b squared.
Square the last term. x squared plus blank plus 5 squared.
Double the product. x squared plus 2 times x times 5 plus 5 squared. Above this expression is the general formula a squared plus 2 times a times b plus b squared.
Simplify. x squared plus 10 x plus 25.

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Multiply: ( x + 9 ) 2 .

x 2 + 18 x + 81

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Multiply: ( y + 11 ) 2 .

y 2 + 22 y + 121

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Multiply: ( y 3 ) 2 .

Solution

y minus 3, in parentheses, squared. Above the expression is the general formula a minus b, in parentheses, squared.
Square the first term. y squared minus blank plus blank. Above the expression is the general form a squared plus 2 a b plus b squared.
Square the last term. y squared minus blank plus 3 squared.
Double the product. y squared minus y times y times 3 plus 3 squared. Above this expression is the general formula a squared plus 2 times a times b plus b squared.
Simplify. y squared minus 6 y plus 9.

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Multiply: ( x 9 ) 2 .

x 2 18 x + 81

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Multiply: ( p 13 ) 2 .

p 2 26 p + 169

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Multiply: ( 4 x + 6 ) 2 .

Solution

4 x plus 6, in parentheses, squared. Above the expression is the general formula a plus b, in parentheses, squared.
Use the pattern. 4 x squared plus 2 times 4 x times 6 plus 6 squared. Above this expression is the general formula a squared plus 2 times a times b plus b squared.
Simplify. 16 x squared plus 48 x plus 36.

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Multiply: ( 6 x + 3 ) 2 .

36 x 2 + 36 x + 9

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Multiply: ( 4 x + 9 ) 2 .

16 x 2 + 72 x + 81

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Multiply: ( 2 x 3 y ) 2 .

Solution

contains 2 x minus 3 y, in parentheses, squared. Above the expression is the general formula a plus b, in parentheses, squared.
Use the pattern. 2 x squared minus 2 times 2 x times 3 y plus 3 y squared. Above this expression is the general formula a squared minus 2 times a times b plus b squared.
Simplify. 4 x squared minus 12 x y plus 9 y squared.

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Multiply: ( 2 c d ) 2 .

4 c 2 4 c d + d 2

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Multiply: ( 4 x 5 y ) 2 .

16 x 2 40 x y + 25 y 2

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Questions & Answers

How do you find divisible numbers without a calculator?
Jacob Reply
When she graduates college, Linda will owe $43,000 in student loans. The interest rate on the federal loans is 4.5% and the rate on the private bank loans is 2%. The total interest she owes for one year was $1,585. What is the amount of each loan?
Ariana Reply
Sean took the bus from Seattle to Boise, a distance of 506 miles. If the trip took 7 2/3 hours, what was the speed of the bus?
Kirisma Reply
66miles/hour
snigdha
How did you work it out?
Esther
s=mi/hr 2/3~0.67 s=506mi/7.67hr = ~66 mi/hr
Orlando
hello, I have algebra phobia. Subtracting negative numbers always seem to get me confused.
Alicia Reply
what do you need help in?
Felix
subtracting a negative....is adding!!
Heather
look at the numbers if they have different signs, it's like subtracting....but you keep the sign of the largest number...
Felix
for example.... -19 + 7.... different signs...subtract.... 12 keep the sign of the "largest" number 19 is bigger than 7.... 19 has the negative sign... Therefore, -12 is your answer...
Felix
—12
Niazmohammad
Thanks Felix.l also get confused with signs.
Esther
Thank you for this
Shatey
ty
Graham
think about it like you lost $19 (-19), then found $7(+7). Totally you lost just $12 (-12)
Annushka
I used to struggle a lot with negative numbers and math in general what I typically do is look at it in terms of money I have -$5 in my account I then take out 5 more dollars how much do I have in my account well-$10 ... I also for a long time would draw it out on a number line to visualize it
Meg
practicing with smaller numbers to understand then working with larger numbers helps too and the song/rhyme same sign add and keep opposite signs subtract keep the sign of the bigger # then you'll be exact
Meg
Bruce drives his car for his job. The equation R=0.575m+42 models the relation between the amount in dollars, R, that he is reimbursed and the number of miles, m, he drives in one day. Find the amount Bruce is reimbursed on a day when he drives 220 miles
John Reply
168.50=R
Heather
john is 5years older than wanjiru.the sum of their years is27years.what is the age of each
achol Reply
46
mustee
j 17 w 11
Joseph
john is 16. wanjiru is 11.
Felix
27-5=22 22÷2=11 11+5=16
Joyce
where's the answers?
Ed Reply
I don't see where the answers are.
Ed
Cindy and Richard leave their dorm in Charleston at the same time. Cindy rides her bicycle north at a speed of 18 miles per hour. Richard rides his bicycle south at a speed of 14 miles per hour. How long will it take them to be 96 miles apart?
Maddy Reply
3
Christopher
18t+14t=96 32t=96 32/96 3
Christopher
show that a^n-b^2n is divisible by a-b
Florence Reply
What does 3 times your weight right now
Cherokee Reply
Use algebra to combine 39×5 and the half sum of travel of 59+30
Cherokee
What is the segment of 13? Explain
Cherokee
my weight is 49. So 3 times is 147
Cherokee
kg to lbs you goin to convert 2.2 or one if the same unit your going to time your body weight by 3. example if my body weight is 210lb. what would be my weight if I was 3 times as much in kg. that's you do 210 x3 = 630lb. then 630 x 2.2= .... hope this helps
tyler
How to convert grams to pounds?
paul
What is the lcm of 340
Kendra Reply
Yes
Cherokee
How many numbers each equal to y must be taken to make 15xy
Malik Reply
15x
Martin
15x
Asamoah
15x
Hugo
1y
Tom
1y x 15y
Tom
find the equation whose roots are 1 and 2
Adda Reply
(x - 2)(x -1)=0 so equation is x^2-x+2=0
Ranu
I believe it's x^2-3x+2
NerdNamedGerg
because the X's multiply by the -2 and the -1 and than combine like terms
NerdNamedGerg
find the equation whose roots are -1 and 4
Adda
Ans = ×^2-3×+2
Gee
find the equation whose roots are -2 and -1
Adda
(×+1)(×-4) = x^2-3×-4
Gee
yeah
Asamoah
Quadratic equations involving factorization
Winner Reply
there's a chatting option in the app wow
Nana
That's cool cool
Nana
Nice to meet you all
Nana
you too.
Joan
😃
Nana
Hey you all there are several Free Apps that can really help you to better solve type Equations.
Debra
Debra, which apps specifically. ..?
Nana
am having a course in elementary algebra ,any recommendations ?
samuel
Samuel Addai, me too at ucc elementary algebra as part of my core subjects in science
Nana
me too as part of my core subjects in R M E
Ken
at ABETIFI COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
Ken
ok great. Good to know.
Joan
5x + 1/3= 2x + 1/2
sanam
Plz solve this
sanam
5x - 3x = 1/2 - 1/3 2x = 1/6 x = 1/12
Ranu
Thks ranu
sanam
Please help me solve this 10x+14=-2x+38
Erica
the previous equation should be 3x = 1/6 x=1/18
Sriram
for the new one 10x + 2x = 38 - 14
Sriram
12x = 24 x=2
Sriram
10x + 14 = -2x +38 10x + 2x = 38 - 14 12x = 24 divide both sides by the coefficient of x, which is 12 therefore × = 2
vida
a trader gains 20 rupees loses 42 rupees and then gains ten rupees Express algebraically the result of his transactions
vinaya Reply
a trader gains 20 rupees loses 42 rupees and then gains 10 rupees Express algebraically the result of his three transactions
vinaya
a trader gains 20 rupees loses 42 rupees and then gains 10 rupees Express algebraically the result of his three transactions
vinaya
a trader gains 20 rupees loses 42 rupees and then gains 10 rupees Express algebraically the result of his three transactions
vinaya
Practice Key Terms 1

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Source:  OpenStax, Elementary algebra. OpenStax CNX. Jan 18, 2017 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12116/1.2
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