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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Square a binomial using the Binomial Squares Pattern
  • Multiply conjugates using the Product of Conjugates Pattern
  • Recognize and use the appropriate special product pattern

Before you get started, take this readiness quiz.

  1. Simplify: 9 2 ( −9 ) 2 9 2 .
    If you missed this problem, review [link] .

Square a binomial using the binomial squares pattern

Mathematicians like to look for patterns that will make their work easier. A good example of this is squaring binomials. While you can always get the product by writing the binomial    twice and using the methods of the last section, there is less work to do if you learn to use a pattern.

Let’s start by looking at ( x + 9 ) 2 . What does this mean? ( x + 9 ) 2 It means to multiply ( x + 9 ) by itself. ( x + 9 ) ( x + 9 ) Then, using FOIL, we get: x 2 + 9 x + 9 x + 81 Combining like terms gives: x 2 + 18 x + 81 Here’s another one: ( y 7 ) 2 Multiply ( y 7 ) by itself. ( y 7 ) ( y 7 ) Using FOIL, we get: y 2 7 y 7 y + 49 And combining like terms: y 2 14 y + 49 And one more: ( 2 x + 3 ) 2 Multiply. ( 2 x + 3 ) ( 2 x + 3 ) Use FOIL: 4 x 2 + 6 x + 6 x + 9 Combine like terms. 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9

Look at these results. Do you see any patterns?

What about the number of terms? In each example we squared a binomial and the result was a trinomial    .

( a + b ) 2 = ____ + ____ + ____

Now look at the first term in each result. Where did it come from?

This figure has three columns. The first column contains the expression x plus 9, in parentheses, squared. Below this is the product of x plus 9 and x plus 9. Below this is x squared plus 9x plus 9x plus 81. Below this is x squared plus 18x plus 81. The second column contains the expression y minus 7, in parentheses, squared. Below this is the product of y minus 7 and y minus 7. Below this is y squared minus 7y minus 7y plus 49. Below this is the expression y squared minus 14y plus 49. The third column contains the expression 2x plus 3, in parentheses, squared. Below this is the product of 2x plus 3 and 2x plus 3. Below this is 4x squared plus 6x plus 6x plus 9. Below this is 4x squared plus 12x plus 9.

The first term is the product of the first terms of each binomial. Since the binomials are identical, it is just the square of the first term!

( a + b ) 2 = a 2 + ____ + ____

To get the first term of the product, square the first term .

Where did the last term come from? Look at the examples and find the pattern.

The last term is the product of the last terms, which is the square of the last term.

( a + b ) 2 = ____ + ____ + b 2

To get the last term of the product, square the last term .

Finally, look at the middle term . Notice it came from adding the “outer” and the “inner” terms—which are both the same! So the middle term is double the product of the two terms of the binomial.

( a + b ) 2 = ____ + 2 a b + ____ ( a b ) 2 = ____ 2 a b + ____

To get the middle term of the product, multiply the terms and double their product .

Putting it all together:

Binomial squares pattern

If a and b are real numbers,

( a + b ) 2 = a 2 + 2 a b + b 2 ( a b ) 2 = a 2 2 a b + b 2
No Alt Text

To square a binomial:

  • square the first term
  • square the last term
  • double their product

A number example helps verify the pattern.

( 10 + 4 ) 2 Square the first term. 10 2 + ___ + ___ Square the last term. 10 2 + ___ + 4 2 Double their product. 10 2 + 2 · 10 · 4 + 4 2 Simplify. 100 + 80 + 16 Simplify. 196

To multiply ( 10 + 4 ) 2 usually you’d follow the Order of Operations.

( 10 + 4 ) 2 ( 14 ) 2 196

The pattern works!

Multiply: ( x + 5 ) 2 .

Solution

x plus 5, in parentheses, squared. Above the expression is the general formula a plus b, in parentheses, squared.
Square the first term. x squared plus blank plus blank. Above the expression is the general form a squared plus 2 a b plus b squared.
Square the last term. x squared plus blank plus 5 squared.
Double the product. x squared plus 2 times x times 5 plus 5 squared. Above this expression is the general formula a squared plus 2 times a times b plus b squared.
Simplify. x squared plus 10 x plus 25.

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Multiply: ( x + 9 ) 2 .

x 2 + 18 x + 81

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Multiply: ( y + 11 ) 2 .

y 2 + 22 y + 121

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Multiply: ( y 3 ) 2 .

Solution

y minus 3, in parentheses, squared. Above the expression is the general formula a minus b, in parentheses, squared.
Square the first term. y squared minus blank plus blank. Above the expression is the general form a squared plus 2 a b plus b squared.
Square the last term. y squared minus blank plus 3 squared.
Double the product. y squared minus y times y times 3 plus 3 squared. Above this expression is the general formula a squared plus 2 times a times b plus b squared.
Simplify. y squared minus 6 y plus 9.

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Multiply: ( x 9 ) 2 .

x 2 18 x + 81

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Multiply: ( p 13 ) 2 .

p 2 26 p + 169

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Multiply: ( 4 x + 6 ) 2 .

Solution

4 x plus 6, in parentheses, squared. Above the expression is the general formula a plus b, in parentheses, squared.
Use the pattern. 4 x squared plus 2 times 4 x times 6 plus 6 squared. Above this expression is the general formula a squared plus 2 times a times b plus b squared.
Simplify. 16 x squared plus 48 x plus 36.

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Multiply: ( 6 x + 3 ) 2 .

36 x 2 + 36 x + 9

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Multiply: ( 4 x + 9 ) 2 .

16 x 2 + 72 x + 81

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Multiply: ( 2 x 3 y ) 2 .

Solution

contains 2 x minus 3 y, in parentheses, squared. Above the expression is the general formula a plus b, in parentheses, squared.
Use the pattern. 2 x squared minus 2 times 2 x times 3 y plus 3 y squared. Above this expression is the general formula a squared minus 2 times a times b plus b squared.
Simplify. 4 x squared minus 12 x y plus 9 y squared.

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Multiply: ( 2 c d ) 2 .

4 c 2 4 c d + d 2

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Multiply: ( 4 x 5 y ) 2 .

16 x 2 40 x y + 25 y 2

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Questions & Answers

Tickets for a show are $70 for adults and $50 for children. For one evening performance, a total of 300 tickets were sold and the receipts totaled $17,200. How many adult tickets and how many child tickets were sold?
Mum Reply
A 50% antifreeze solution is to be mixed with a 90% antifreeze solution to get 200 liters of a 80% solution. How many liters of the 50% solution and how many liters of the 90% solution will be used?
Edi Reply
June needs 45 gallons of punch for a party and has 2 different coolers to carry it in. The bigger cooler is 5 times as large as the smaller cooler. How many gallons can each cooler hold?
Jesus Reply
Washing his dad’s car alone, eight-year-old Levi takes 2.5 hours. If his dad helps him, then it takes 1 hour. How long does it take the Levi’s dad to wash the car by himself?
Ronald Reply
Bruce drives his car for his job. The equation R=0.575m+42 models the relation between the amount in dollars, R, that he is reimbursed and the number of miles, m, he drives in one day. Find the amount Bruce is reimbursed on a day when he drives 220 miles.
Dojzae Reply
LeBron needs 150 milliliters of a 30% solution of sulfuric acid for a lab experiment but only has access to a 25% and a 50% solution. How much of the 25% and how much of the 50% solution should he mix to make the 30% solution?
Xona Reply
5%
Michael
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The Reply
Felecia answer 1.5 hours before he reaches her
Adriana Reply
I would like to solve the problem -6/2x
rachel Reply
12x
Andrew
how
Christian
Does the x represent a number or does it need to be graphed ?
latonya
-3/x
Venugopal
-3x is correct
Atul
Arnold invested $64,000, some at 5.5% interest and the rest at 9%. How much did he invest at each rate if he received $4,500 in interest in one year?
Stephanie Reply
Tickets for the community fair cost $12 for adults and $5 for children. On the first day of the fair, 312 tickets were sold for a total of $2204. How many adult tickets and how many child tickets were sold?
Alpha Reply
220
gayla
Three-fourths of the people at a concert are children. If there are 87 children, what is the total number of people at the concert?
Tsimmuaj Reply
Erica earned a total of $50,450 last year from her two jobs. The amount she earned from her job at the store was $1,250 more than four times the amount she earned from her job at the college. How much did she earn from her job at the college?
Tsimmuaj
Erica earned a total of $50,450 last year from her two jobs. The amount she earned from her job at the store was $1,250 more than four times the amount she earned from her job at the college. How much did she earn from her job at the college?
Tsimmuaj
? Is there anything wrong with this passage I found the total sum for 2 jobs, but found why elaborate on extra If I total one week from the store *4 would = the month than the total is = x than x can't calculate 10 month of a year
candido
what would be wong
candido
87 divided by 3 then multiply that by 4. 116 people total.
Melissa
the actual number that has 3 out of 4 of a whole pie
candido
was having a hard time finding
Teddy
use Matrices for the 2nd question
Daniel
One number is 11 less than the other number. If their sum is increased by 8, the result is 71. Find the numbers.
Tsimmuaj Reply
26 + 37 = 63 + 8 = 71
gayla
26+37=63+8=71
ziad
11+52=63+8=71
Thisha
how do we know the answer is correct?
Thisha
23 is 11 less than 37. 23+37=63. 63+8=71. that is what the question asked for.
gayla
23 +11 = 37. 23+37=63 63+8=71
Gayla
by following the question. one number is 11 less than the other number 26+11=37 so 26+37=63+8=71
Gayla
your answer did not fit the guidelines of the question 11 is 41 less than 52.
gayla
71-8-11 =52 is this correct?
Ruel
let the number is 'x' and the other number is "x-11". if their sum is increased means: x+(x-11)+8 result will be 71. so x+(x-11)+8=71 2x-11+8=71 2x-3=71 2x=71+3 2x=74 1/2(2x=74)1/2 x=37 final answer
tesfu
just new
Muwanga
Amara currently sells televisions for company A at a salary of $17,000 plus a $100 commission for each television she sells. Company B offers her a position with a salary of $29,000 plus a $20 commission for each television she sells. How televisions would Amara need to sell for the options to be equal?
Tsimmuaj Reply
yes math
Kenneth
company A 13 company b 5. A 17,000+13×100=29,100 B 29,000+5×20=29,100
gayla
need help with math to do tsi test
Toocute
me too
Christian
have you tried the TSI practice test ***tsipracticetest.com
gayla
DaMarcus and Fabian live 23 miles apart and play soccer at a park between their homes. DaMarcus rode his bike for 34 of an hour and Fabian rode his bike for 12 of an hour to get to the park. Fabian’s speed was 6 miles per hour faster than DaMarcus’s speed. Find the speed of both soccer players.
gustavo Reply
?
Ann
DaMarcus: 16 mi/hr Fabian: 22 mi/hr
Sherman
Practice Key Terms 1

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Source:  OpenStax, Elementary algebra. OpenStax CNX. Jan 18, 2017 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12116/1.2
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