# 1.6 Add and subtract fractions

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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
• Add or subtract fractions with a common denominator
• Add or subtract fractions with different denominators
• Use the order of operations to simplify complex fractions
• Evaluate variable expressions with fractions

A more thorough introduction to the topics covered in this section can be found in the Prealgebra chapter, Fractions .

## Add or subtract fractions with a common denominator

When we multiplied fractions, we just multiplied the numerators and multiplied the denominators right straight across. To add or subtract fractions, they must have a common denominator.

If $a,b,\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{and}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}c$ are numbers where $c\ne 0,$ then

$\frac{a}{c}+\frac{b}{c}=\frac{a+b}{c}\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\text{and}\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\frac{a}{c}-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{b}{c}=\frac{a-b}{c}$

To add or subtract fractions, add or subtract the numerators and place the result over the common denominator.

Doing the Manipulative Mathematics activities “Model Fraction Addition” and “Model Fraction Subtraction” will help you develop a better understanding of adding and subtracting fractions.

Find the sum: $\frac{x}{3}+\frac{2}{3}.$

## Solution

$\begin{array}{cccccc}& & & & & \hfill \frac{x}{3}+\frac{2}{3}\hfill \\ \begin{array}{c}\text{Add the numerators and place the sum over}\hfill \\ \text{the common denominator.}\hfill \end{array}\hfill & & & & & \hfill \frac{x+2}{3}\hfill \end{array}$

Find the sum: $\frac{x}{4}+\frac{3}{4}.$

$\frac{x+3}{4}$

Find the sum: $\frac{y}{8}+\frac{5}{8}.$

$\frac{y+5}{8}$

Find the difference: $-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{23}{24}-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{13}{24}.$

## Solution

$\begin{array}{cccccc}& & & & & \hfill -\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{23}{24}-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{13}{24}\hfill \\ \begin{array}{c}\text{Subtract the numerators and place the}\hfill \\ \text{difference over the common denominator.}\hfill \end{array}\hfill & & & & & \hfill \frac{-23-13}{24}\hfill \\ \text{Simplify.}\hfill & & & & & \hfill \frac{-36}{24}\hfill \\ \text{Simplify. Remember,}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{a}{b}=\frac{\text{−}a}{b}.\hfill & & & & & \hfill -\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{3}{2}\hfill \end{array}$

Find the difference: $-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{19}{28}-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{7}{28}.$

$-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{26}{28}$

Find the difference: $-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{27}{32}-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{1}{32}.$

$-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{7}{8}$

Simplify: $-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{10}{x}-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{4}{x}.$

## Solution

$\begin{array}{cccccc}& & & & & \hfill -\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{10}{x}-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{4}{x}\hfill \\ \\ \\ \begin{array}{c}\text{Subtract the numerators and place the}\hfill \\ \text{difference over the common denominator.}\hfill \end{array}\hfill & & & & & \hfill \frac{-14}{x}\hfill \\ \\ \\ \begin{array}{c}\text{Rewrite with the sign in front of the}\hfill \\ \text{fraction.}\hfill \end{array}\hfill & & & & & \hfill -\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{14}{x}\hfill \end{array}$

Find the difference: $-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{9}{x}-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{7}{x}.$

$-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{16}{x}$

Find the difference: $-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{17}{a}-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{5}{a}.$

$-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{22}{a}$

Now we will do an example that has both addition and subtraction.

Simplify: $\frac{3}{8}+\left(-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{5}{8}\right)-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{1}{8}.$

## Solution

$\begin{array}{cccccc}\begin{array}{c}\text{Add and subtract fractions—do they have a}\hfill \\ \text{common denominator? Yes.}\hfill \end{array}\hfill & & & & & \hfill \frac{3}{8}+\left(-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{5}{8}\right)-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{1}{8}\hfill \\ \\ \\ \begin{array}{c}\text{Add and subtract the numerators and place}\hfill \\ \text{the result over the common denominator.}\hfill \end{array}\hfill & & & & & \hfill \frac{3+\left(-5\right)-1}{8}\hfill \\ \\ \\ \text{Simplify left to right.}\hfill & & & & & \hfill \frac{-2-1}{8}\hfill \\ \\ \\ \text{Simplify.}\hfill & & & & & \hfill -\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{3}{8}\hfill \end{array}$

Simplify: $\frac{2}{5}+\left(-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{4}{9}\right)-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{7}{9}.$

$-1$

Simplify: $\frac{5}{9}+\left(-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{4}{9}\right)-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{7}{9}.$

$-\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{2}{3}$

## Add or subtract fractions with different denominators

As we have seen, to add or subtract fractions, their denominators must be the same. The least common denominator    (LCD) of two fractions is the smallest number that can be used as a common denominator    of the fractions. The LCD of the two fractions is the least common multiple (LCM) of their denominators.

## Least common denominator

The least common denominator (LCD) of two fractions is the least common multiple (LCM) of their denominators.

Doing the Manipulative Mathematics activity “Finding the Least Common Denominator” will help you develop a better understanding of the LCD.

After we find the least common denominator of two fractions, we convert the fractions to equivalent fractions with the LCD. Putting these steps together allows us to add and subtract fractions because their denominators will be the same!

## How to add or subtract fractions

Add: $\frac{7}{12}+\frac{5}{18}.$   Add: $\frac{7}{12}+\frac{11}{15}.$

$\frac{79}{60}$

Add: $\frac{13}{15}+\frac{17}{20}.$

$\frac{103}{60}$

1. Do they have a common denominator?
• Yes—go to step 2.
• No—rewrite each fraction with the LCD (least common denominator). Find the LCD. Change each fraction into an equivalent fraction with the LCD as its denominator.
2. Add or subtract the fractions.
3. Simplify, if possible.

integer greater than 2 and less than 12
2 < x < 12
Felix
I'm guessing you are doing inequalities...
Felix
Actually, translating words into algebraic expressions / equations...
Felix
hi
Darianna
hello
Mister
He charges $125 per job. His monthly expenses are$1,600. How many jobs must he work in order to make a profit of at least $2,400? Alicia Reply at least 20 Ayla what are the steps? Alicia 6.4 jobs Grahame 32 Grahame 1600+2400= total amount with expenses. 4000/125= number of jobs needed to make that min profit of 2400. answer is 32 Orlando He must work 32 jobs to make a profit POP what is algebra Azhar Reply repeated addition and subtraction of the order of operations. i love algebra I'm obsessed. Shemiah hi Krekar One-fourth of the candies in a bag of M&M’s are red. If there are 23 red candies, how many candies are in the bag? Leanna Reply they are 92 candies in the bag POP rectangular field solutions Navin Reply What is this? Donna t muqtaar the proudact of 3x^3-5×^2+3 and 2x^2+5x-4 in z7[x]/ is anas Reply ? Choli a rock is thrown directly upward with an initial velocity of 96feet per second from a cliff 190 feet above a beach. The hight of tha rock above the beach after t second is given by the equation h=_16t^2+96t+190 Usman Stella bought a dinette set on sale for$725. The original price was $1,299. To the nearest tenth of a percent, what was the rate of discount? Manhwa Reply 44.19% Scott 40.22% Terence 44.2% Orlando I don't know Donna if you want the discounted price subtract$725 from $1299. then divide the answer by$1299. you get 0.4419... but as percent you get 44.19... but to the nearest tenth... round .19 to .2 and you get 44.2%
Orlando
you could also just divide $725/$1299 and then subtract it from 1. then you get the same answer.
Orlando
p mulripied-5 and add 30 to it
Tausif
Tausif
how
muqtaar
Can you explain further
p mulripied-5 and add to 30
Tausif
-5p+30?
Corey
p=-5+30
Jacob
How do you find divisible numbers without a calculator?
TAKE OFF THE LAST DIGIT AND MULTIPLY IT 9. SUBTRACT IT THE DIGITS YOU HAVE LEFT. IF THE ANSWER DIVIDES BY 13(OR IS ZERO), THEN YOUR ORIGINAL NUMBER WILL ALSO DIVIDE BY 13!IS DIVISIBLE BY 13
BAINAMA
When she graduates college, Linda will owe $43,000 in student loans. The interest rate on the federal loans is 4.5% and the rate on the private bank loans is 2%. The total interest she owes for one year was$1,585. What is the amount of each loan?
Sean took the bus from Seattle to Boise, a distance of 506 miles. If the trip took 7 2/3 hours, what was the speed of the bus?
66miles/hour
snigdha
How did you work it out?
Esther
s=mi/hr 2/3~0.67 s=506mi/7.67hr = ~66 mi/hr
Orlando
No; 65m/hr
albert
hello, I have algebra phobia. Subtracting negative numbers always seem to get me confused.
what do you need help in?
Felix
Heather
look at the numbers if they have different signs, it's like subtracting....but you keep the sign of the largest number...
Felix
for example.... -19 + 7.... different signs...subtract.... 12 keep the sign of the "largest" number 19 is bigger than 7.... 19 has the negative sign... Therefore, -12 is your answer...
Felix
—12
Thanks Felix.l also get confused with signs.
Esther
Thank you for this
Shatey
ty
Graham
think about it like you lost $19 (-19), then found$7(+7). Totally you lost just $12 (-12) Annushka I used to struggle a lot with negative numbers and math in general what I typically do is look at it in terms of money I have -$5 in my account I then take out 5 more dollars how much do I have in my account well-\$10 ... I also for a long time would draw it out on a number line to visualize it
Meg
practicing with smaller numbers to understand then working with larger numbers helps too and the song/rhyme same sign add and keep opposite signs subtract keep the sign of the bigger # then you'll be exact
Meg
hi
albert
Bruce drives his car for his job. The equation R=0.575m+42 models the relation between the amount in dollars, R, that he is reimbursed and the number of miles, m, he drives in one day. Find the amount Bruce is reimbursed on a day when he drives 220 miles
168.50=R
Heather
john is 5years older than wanjiru.the sum of their years is27years.what is the age of each
46
mustee
j 17 w 11
Joseph
john is 16. wanjiru is 11.
Felix
27-5=22 22÷2=11 11+5=16
Joyce By Miranda Reising By OpenStax By OpenStax By IES Portal By Robert Murphy By OpenStax By David Corey By Olivia D'Ambrogio By Stephen Voron By Frank Levy