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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Simplify expressions with square roots
  • Identify integers, rational numbers, irrational numbers, and real numbers
  • Locate fractions on the number line
  • Locate decimals on the number line

A more thorough introduction to the topics covered in this section can be found in the Prealgebra chapters, Decimals and Properties of Real Numbers .

Simplify expressions with square roots

Remember that when a number n is multiplied by itself, we write n 2 and read it “n squared.” The result is called the square of n . For example,

8 2 read 8 squared’ 64 64 is called the square of 8 .

Similarly, 121 is the square of 11, because 11 2 is 121.

Square of a number

If n 2 = m , then m is the square of n .

Doing the Manipulative Mathematics activity “Square Numbers” will help you develop a better understanding of perfect square numbers.

Complete the following table to show the squares of the counting numbers 1 through 15.

There is a table with two rows and 17 columns. The first row reads from left to right Number, n, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15. The second row reads from left to right Square, n squared, blank, blank, blank, blank, blank, blank, blank, 64, blank, blank, 121, blank, blank, blank, and blank.

The numbers in the second row are called perfect square numbers. It will be helpful to learn to recognize the perfect square numbers.

The squares of the counting numbers are positive numbers. What about the squares of negative numbers? We know that when the signs of two numbers are the same, their product is positive. So the square of any negative number is also positive.

( −3 ) 2 = 9 ( −8 ) 2 = 64 ( −11 ) 2 = 121 ( −15 ) 2 = 225

Did you notice that these squares are the same as the squares of the positive numbers?

Sometimes we will need to look at the relationship between numbers and their squares in reverse. Because 10 2 = 100 , we say 100 is the square of 10. We also say that 10 is a square root of 100. A number whose square is m is called a square root of m .

Square root of a number

If n 2 = m , then n is a square root of m .

Notice ( −10 ) 2 = 100 also, so −10 is also a square root of 100. Therefore, both 10 and −10 are square roots of 100.

So, every positive number has two square roots—one positive and one negative. What if we only wanted the positive square root of a positive number? The radical sign    , m , denotes the positive square root. The positive square root is called the principal square root . When we use the radical sign that always means we want the principal square root.

We also use the radical sign for the square root of zero. Because 0 2 = 0 , 0 = 0 . Notice that zero has only one square root.

Square root notation

m is read “the square root of m

A square root is given, with an arrow to the radical sign (it looks like a checkmark with a horizontal line extending from its long end) denoted radical sign and an arrow to the number under the radical sign, which is marked radicand.

If m = n 2 , then m = n , for n 0 .

The square root of m , m , is the positive number whose square is m .

Since 10 is the principal square root of 100, we write 100 = 10 . You may want to complete the following table to help you recognize square roots.

There is a table with two rows and 15 columns. The first row reads from left to right square root of 1, square root of 4, square root of 9, square root of 16, square root of 25, square root of 36, square root of 49, square root of 64, square root of 81, square root of 100, square root of 121, square root of 144, square root of 169, square root of 196, and square root of 225. The second row consists of all blanks except for the tenth cell under the square root of 100, which reads 10.

Simplify: 25 121 .


25 Since 5 2 = 25 5

121 Since 11 2 = 121 11

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Simplify: 36 169 .

6 13

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Simplify: 16 196 .

4 14

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We know that every positive number has two square roots and the radical sign indicates the positive one. We write 100 = 10 . If we want to find the negative square root of a number, we place a negative in front of the radical sign. For example, 100 = −10 . We read 100 as “the opposite of the square root of 10.”

Simplify: 9 144 .

  1. 9 The negative is in front of the radical sign. 3

  2. 144 The negative is in front of the radical sign. 12
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Questions & Answers

Priam has pennies and dimes in a cup holder in his car. The total value of the coins is $4.21 . The number of dimes is three less than four times the number of pennies. How many pennies and how many dimes are in the cup?
Cecilia Reply
Arnold invested $64,000 some at 5.5% interest and the rest at 9% interest how much did he invest at each rate if he received $4500 in interest in one year
Heidi Reply
List five positive thoughts you can say to yourself that will help youapproachwordproblemswith a positive attitude. You may want to copy them on a sheet of paper and put it in the front of your notebook, where you can read them often.
Elbert Reply
Avery and Caden have saved $27,000 towards a down payment on a house. They want to keep some of the money in a bank account that pays 2.4% annual interest and the rest in a stock fund that pays 7.2% annual interest. How much should they put into each account so that they earn 6% interest per year?
Leika Reply
1.2% of 27.000
i did 2.4%-7.2% i got 1.2%
I have 6% of 27000 = 1620 so we need to solve 2.4x +7.2y =1620
I think Catherine is on the right track. Solve for x and y.
next bit : x=(1620-7.2y)/2.4 y=(1620-2.4x)/7.2 I think we can then put the expression on the right hand side of the "x=" into the second equation. 2.4x in the second equation can be rewritten as 2.4(rhs of first equation) I write this out tidy and get back to you...
Darrin is hanging 200 feet of Christmas garland on the three sides of fencing that enclose his rectangular front yard. The length is five feet less than five times the width. Find the length and width of the fencing.
Ericka Reply
Mario invested $475 in $45 and $25 stock shares. The number of $25 shares was five less than three times the number of $45 shares. How many of each type of share did he buy?
Jawad Reply
let # of $25 shares be (x) and # of $45 shares be (y) we start with $25x + $45y=475, right? we are told the number of $25 shares is 3y-5) so plug in this for x. $25(3y-5)+$45y=$475 75y-125+45y=475 75y+45y=600 120y=600 y=5 so if #$25 shares is (3y-5) plug in y.
will every polynomial have finite number of multiples?
cricket Reply
a=# of 10's. b=# of 20's; a+b=54; 10a + 20b=$910; a=54 -b; 10(54-b) + 20b=$910; 540-10b+20b=$910; 540+10b=$910; 10b=910-540; 10b=370; b=37; so there are 37 20's and since a+b=54, a+37=54; a=54-37=17; a=17, so 17 10's. So lets check. $740+$170=$910.
David Reply
. A cashier has 54 bills, all of which are $10 or $20 bills. The total value of the money is $910. How many of each type of bill does the cashier have?
jojo Reply
whats the coefficient of 17x
Dwayne Reply
the solution says it 14 but how i thought it would be 17 im i right or wrong is the exercise wrong
wow the exercise told me 17x solution is 14x lmao
thank you
A private jet can fly 1,210 miles against a 25 mph headwind in the same amount of time it can fly 1,694 miles with a 25 mph tailwind. Find the speed of the jet
Mikaela Reply
Washing his dad’s car alone, eight-year-old Levi takes 2.5 hours. If his dad helps him, then it takes 1 hour. How long does it take the Levi’s dad to wash the car by himself?
Sam Reply
Ethan and Leo start riding their bikes at the opposite ends of a 65-mile bike path. After Ethan has ridden 1.5 hours and Leo has ridden 2 hours, they meet on the path. Ethan’s speed is 6 miles per hour faster than Leo’s speed. Find the speed of the two bikers.
Mckenzie Reply
Nathan walked on an asphalt pathway for 12 miles. He walked the 12 miles back to his car on a gravel road through the forest. On the asphalt he walked 2 miles per hour faster than on the gravel. The walk on the gravel took one hour longer than the walk on the asphalt. How fast did he walk on the gravel?
Nancy took a 3 hour drive. She went 50 miles before she got caught in a storm. Then she drove 68 miles at 9 mph less than she had driven when the weather was good. What was her speed driving in the storm?
Reiley Reply
Mr Hernaez runs his car at a regular speed of 50 kph and Mr Ranola at 36 kph. They started at the same place at 5:30 am and took opposite directions. At what time were they 129 km apart?
hamzzi Reply
90 minutes
Practice Key Terms 6

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