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Given data of input and corresponding outputs from a linear function, find the best fit line using linear regression.

  1. Enter the input in List 1 (L1).
  2. Enter the output in List 2 (L2).
  3. On a graphing utility, select Linear Regression (LinReg).

Finding a least squares regression line

Find the least squares regression line using the cricket-chirp data in [link] .

  1. Enter the input (chirps) in List 1 (L1).
  2. Enter the output (temperature) in List 2 (L2). See [link] .
    L1 44 35 20.4 33 31 35 18.5 37 26
    L2 80.5 70.5 57 66 68 72 52 73.5 53
  3. On a graphing utility, select Linear Regression (LinReg). Using the cricket chirp data from earlier, with technology we obtain the equation:
T ( c ) = 30.281 + 1.143 c
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Will there ever be a case where two different lines will serve as the best fit for the data?

No. There is only one best fit line.

Distinguishing between linear and nonlinear models

As we saw above with the cricket-chirp model, some data exhibit strong linear trends, but other data, like the final exam scores plotted by age, are clearly nonlinear. Most calculators and computer software can also provide us with the correlation coefficient    , which is a measure of how closely the line fits the data. Many graphing calculators require the user to turn a ”diagnostic on” selection to find the correlation coefficient, which mathematicians label as r The correlation coefficient provides an easy way to get an idea of how close to a line the data falls.

We should compute the correlation coefficient only for data that follows a linear pattern or to determine the degree to which a data set is linear. If the data exhibits a nonlinear pattern, the correlation coefficient for a linear regression is meaningless. To get a sense for the relationship between the value of r and the graph of the data, [link] shows some large data sets with their correlation coefficients. Remember, for all plots, the horizontal axis shows the input and the vertical axis shows the output.

Correlation coefficients values range from -1.0 - 1.0.  Collections of dots representing an example of each kind of correlation coefficient are plotted underneath them.  The closer to 1.0 the more the points are grouped tightly to form a line in the positive direction.  The closer to -1.0 the more the points are grouped tightly to form a line in the negative direction.  The closer to 0 the points are very scattered and do not form a line.  Several shapes are displayed at the bottom row, none of which are lines, but all of them have values of 0.
Plotted data and related correlation coefficients. (credit: “DenisBoigelot,” Wikimedia Commons)

Correlation coefficient

The correlation coefficient is a value, r , between –1 and 1.

  • r > 0 suggests a positive (increasing) relationship
  • r < 0 suggests a negative (decreasing) relationship
  • The closer the value is to 0, the more scattered the data.
  • The closer the value is to 1 or –1, the less scattered the data is.

Finding a correlation coefficient

Calculate the correlation coefficient for cricket-chirp data in [link] .

Because the data appear to follow a linear pattern, we can use technology to calculate r Enter the inputs and corresponding outputs and select the Linear Regression. The calculator will also provide you with the correlation coefficient, r = 0.9509. This value is very close to 1, which suggests a strong increasing linear relationship.

Note: For some calculators, the Diagnostics must be turned "on" in order to get the correlation coefficient when linear regression is performed: [2nd]>[0]>[alpha][x–1], then scroll to DIAGNOSTICSON.

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Fitting a regression line to a set of data

Once we determine that a set of data is linear using the correlation coefficient, we can use the regression line to make predictions. As we learned above, a regression line is a line that is closest to the data in the scatter plot, which means that only one such line is a best fit for the data.

Questions & Answers

what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
Alfred Reply
An investment account was opened with an initial deposit of $9,600 and earns 7.4% interest, compounded continuously. How much will the account be worth after 15 years?
Kala Reply
lim x to infinity e^1-e^-1/log(1+x)
given eccentricity and a point find the equiation
Moses Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Alexandra Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Akash
College algebra is really hard?
Shirleen Reply
Absolutely, for me. My problems with math started in First grade...involving a nun Sister Anastasia, bad vision, talking & getting expelled from Catholic school. When it comes to math I just can't focus and all I can hear is our family silverware banging and clanging on the pink Formica table.
Carole
I'm 13 and I understand it great
AJ
I am 1 year old but I can do it! 1+1=2 proof very hard for me though.
Atone
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Adu
Not really they are just easy concepts which can be understood if you have great basics. I am 14 I understood them easily.
Vedant
find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
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I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
If f(x) = x-2 then, f(3) when 5f(x+1) 5((3-2)+1) 5(1+1) 5(2) 10
Augustine
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
make 5/4 into a mixed number, make that a decimal, and then multiply 32 by the decimal 5/4 turns out to be
AJ
how
Sheref
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
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Abhi
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salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Uday
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Nharnhar
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
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Abdirahman Reply
Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, College algebra. OpenStax CNX. Feb 06, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11759/1.3
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