# 11.1 Sequences and their notations  (Page 4/15)

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Write an explicit formula for the $n\text{th}$ term of the sequence.

$\text{{9,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}-\text{81,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{729,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}-\text{6,561,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{59,049,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{…}}$

${a}_{n}={\left(-1\right)}^{n+1}{9}^{n}$

Write an explicit formula for the $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}n\text{th}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ term of the sequence.

$\left\{-\frac{3}{4},-\frac{9}{8},-\frac{27}{12},-\frac{81}{16},-\frac{243}{20},...\right\}$

${a}_{n}=-\frac{{3}^{n}}{4n}$

Write an explicit formula for the $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}n\text{th}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ term of the sequence.

${a}_{n}={e}^{n-3}$

## Writing the terms of a sequence defined by a recursive formula

Sequences occur naturally in the growth patterns of nautilus shells, pinecones, tree branches, and many other natural structures. We may see the sequence in the leaf or branch arrangement, the number of petals of a flower, or the pattern of the chambers in a nautilus shell. Their growth follows the Fibonacci sequence, a famous sequence in which each term can be found by adding the preceding two terms. The numbers in the sequence are 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34,…. Other examples from the natural world that exhibit the Fibonacci sequence are the Calla Lily, which has just one petal, the Black-Eyed Susan with 13 petals, and different varieties of daisies that may have 21 or 34 petals.

Each term of the Fibonacci sequence depends on the terms that come before it. The Fibonacci sequence cannot easily be written using an explicit formula. Instead, we describe the sequence using a recursive formula , a formula that defines the terms of a sequence using previous terms.

A recursive formula always has two parts: the value of an initial term (or terms), and an equation defining ${a}_{n}$ in terms of preceding terms. For example, suppose we know the following:

We can find the subsequent terms of the sequence using the first term.

$\begin{array}{l}{a}_{1}=3\\ {a}_{2}=2{a}_{1}-1=2\left(3\right)-1=5\\ {a}_{3}=2{a}_{2}-1=2\left(5\right)-1=9\\ {a}_{4}=2{a}_{3}-1=2\left(9\right)-1=17\end{array}$

So the first four terms of the sequence are .

The recursive formula for the Fibonacci sequence states the first two terms and defines each successive term as the sum of the preceding two terms.

To find the tenth term of the sequence, for example, we would need to add the eighth and ninth terms. We were told previously that the eighth and ninth terms are 21 and 34, so

${a}_{10}={a}_{9}+{a}_{8}=34+21=55$

## Recursive formula

A recursive formula    is a formula that defines each term of a sequence using preceding term(s). Recursive formulas must always state the initial term, or terms, of the sequence.

Must the first two terms always be given in a recursive formula?

No. The Fibonacci sequence defines each term using the two preceding terms, but many recursive formulas define each term using only one preceding term. These sequences need only the first term to be defined.

Given a recursive formula with only the first term provided, write the first $n$ terms of a sequence.

1. Identify the initial term, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{a}_{1},$ which is given as part of the formula. This is the first term.
2. To find the second term, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{a}_{2},$ substitute the initial term into the formula for ${a}_{n-1}.$ Solve.
3. To find the third term, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{a}_{3},$ substitute the second term into the formula. Solve.
4. Repeat until you have solved for the $n\text{th}$ term.

## Writing the terms of a sequence defined by a recursive formula

Write the first five terms of the sequence defined by the recursive formula.

The first term is given in the formula. For each subsequent term, we replace ${a}_{n-1}$ with the value of the preceding term.

$\begin{array}{ll}n=1\begin{array}{lllll}\hfill & \hfill & \hfill & \hfill & \hfill \end{array}\hfill & {a}_{1}=9\hfill \\ n=2\hfill & {a}_{2}=3{a}_{1}-20=3\left(9\right)-20=27-20=7\hfill \\ n=3\hfill & {a}_{3}=3{a}_{2}-20=3\left(7\right)-20=21-20=1\hfill \\ n=4\hfill & {a}_{4}=3{a}_{3}-20=3\left(1\right)-20=3-20=-17\hfill \\ n=5\hfill & {a}_{5}=3{a}_{4}-20=3\left(-17\right)-20=-51-20=-71\hfill \end{array}$

The first five terms are See [link] .

can I get some pretty basic questions
In what way does set notation relate to function notation
Ama
is precalculus needed to take caculus
It depends on what you already know. Just test yourself with some precalculus questions. If you find them easy, you're good to go.
Spiro
the solution doesn't seem right for this problem
what is the domain of f(x)=x-4/x^2-2x-15 then
x is different from -5&3
Seid
how to prroved cos⁴x-sin⁴x= cos²x-sin²x are equal
Don't think that you can.
Elliott
how do you provided cos⁴x-sin⁴x = cos²x-sin²x are equal
What are the question marks for?
Elliott
Someone should please solve it for me Add 2over ×+3 +y-4 over 5 simplify (×+a)with square root of two -×root 2 all over a multiply 1over ×-y{(×-y)(×+y)} over ×y
For the first question, I got (3y-2)/15 Second one, I got Root 2 Third one, I got 1/(y to the fourth power) I dont if it's right cause I can barely understand the question.
Is under distribute property, inverse function, algebra and addition and multiplication function; so is a combined question
Abena
find the equation of the line if m=3, and b=-2
graph the following linear equation using intercepts method. 2x+y=4
Ashley
how
Wargod
what?
John
ok, one moment
UriEl
how do I post your graph for you?
UriEl
it won't let me send an image?
UriEl
also for the first one... y=mx+b so.... y=3x-2
UriEl
y=mx+b you were already given the 'm' and 'b'. so.. y=3x-2
Tommy
Please were did you get y=mx+b from
Abena
y=mx+b is the formula of a straight line. where m = the slope & b = where the line crosses the y-axis. In this case, being that the "m" and "b", are given, all you have to do is plug them into the formula to complete the equation.
Tommy
thanks Tommy
Nimo
0=3x-2 2=3x x=3/2 then . y=3/2X-2 I think
Given
co ordinates for x x=0,(-2,0) x=1,(1,1) x=2,(2,4)
neil
"7"has an open circle and "10"has a filled in circle who can I have a set builder notation
x=-b+_Гb2-(4ac) ______________ 2a
I've run into this: x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2) Which expands to: x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2)) The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes: (r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1)) How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
so good
abdikarin
this is an identity when 2 adding two angles within a cosine. it's called the cosine sum formula. there is also a different formula when cosine has an angle minus another angle it's called the sum and difference formulas and they are under any list of trig identities
strategies to form the general term
carlmark
consider r(a+b) = ra + rb. The a and b are the trig identity.
Mike
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
William
what is f(x)=
I don't understand
Joe
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As 'f(x)=y'. According to Google, "The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Thomas
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
Thomas
Darius
Thanks.
Thomas
Â
Thomas
It is the Â that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks. "Â" or 'Â' ... Â
Thomas
Now it shows, go figure?
Thomas
what is this?
i do not understand anything
unknown
lol...it gets better
Darius
I've been struggling so much through all of this. my final is in four weeks 😭
Tiffany
this book is an excellent resource! have you guys ever looked at the online tutoring? there's one that is called "That Tutor Guy" and he goes over a lot of the concepts
Darius
thank you I have heard of him. I should check him out.
Tiffany
is there any question in particular?
Joe
I have always struggled with math. I get lost really easy, if you have any advice for that, it would help tremendously.
Tiffany
Sure, are you in high school or college?
Darius
Hi, apologies for the delayed response. I'm in college.
Tiffany
how to solve polynomial using a calculator