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Given a geometric sequence with a 2 = 4 and a 3 = 32 , find a 6 .

a 6 = 16 , 384

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Writing an explicit formula for the n Th term of a geometric sequence

Write an explicit formula for the n th term of the following geometric sequence.

{ 2 10 50 250 ... }

The first term is 2. The common ratio can be found by dividing the second term by the first term.

10 2 = 5

The common ratio is 5. Substitute the common ratio and the first term of the sequence into the formula.

a n = a 1 r ( n 1 ) a n = 2 5 n 1

The graph of this sequence in [link] shows an exponential pattern.

Graph of the geometric sequence.
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Write an explicit formula for the following geometric sequence.

{ –1 3 –9 27 ... }

a n = ( 3 ) n 1

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Solving application problems with geometric sequences

In real-world scenarios involving arithmetic sequences, we may need to use an initial term of a 0 instead of a 1 . In these problems, we can alter the explicit formula slightly by using the following formula:

a n = a 0 r n

Solving application problems with geometric sequences

In 2013, the number of students in a small school is 284. It is estimated that the student population will increase by 4% each year.

  1. Write a formula for the student population.
  2. Estimate the student population in 2020.
  1. The situation can be modeled by a geometric sequence with an initial term of 284. The student population will be 104% of the prior year, so the common ratio is 1.04.

    Let P be the student population and n be the number of years after 2013. Using the explicit formula for a geometric sequence we get

    P n   = 284 1.04 n
  2. We can find the number of years since 2013 by subtracting.

    2020 2013 = 7

    We are looking for the population after 7 years. We can substitute 7 for n to estimate the population in 2020.

    P 7 = 284 1.04 7 374

    The student population will be about 374 in 2020.

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A business starts a new website. Initially the number of hits is 293 due to the curiosity factor. The business estimates the number of hits will increase by 2.6% per week.

  1. Write a formula for the number of hits.
  2. Estimate the number of hits in 5 weeks.

  1. P n   =   293 1.026 a n
  2. The number of hits will be about 333.

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Access these online resources for additional instruction and practice with geometric sequences.

Key equations

recursive formula for n t h term of a geometric sequence a n = r a n 1 , n 2
explicit formula for n t h term of a geometric sequence a n = a 1 r n 1

Key concepts

  • A geometric sequence is a sequence in which the ratio between any two consecutive terms is a constant.
  • The constant ratio between two consecutive terms is called the common ratio.
  • The common ratio can be found by dividing any term in the sequence by the previous term. See [link] .
  • The terms of a geometric sequence can be found by beginning with the first term and multiplying by the common ratio repeatedly. See [link] and [link] .
  • A recursive formula for a geometric sequence with common ratio r is given by a n = r a n 1 for n 2 .
  • As with any recursive formula, the initial term of the sequence must be given. See [link] .
  • An explicit formula for a geometric sequence with common ratio r is given by a n = a 1 r n 1 . See [link] .
  • In application problems, we sometimes alter the explicit formula slightly to a n = a 0 r n . See [link] .

Questions & Answers

can you not take the square root of a negative number
Sharon Reply
Suppose P= {-3,1,3} Q={-3,-2-1} and R= {-2,2,3}.what is the intersection
Elaine Reply
can I get some pretty basic questions
Ama Reply
In what way does set notation relate to function notation
Ama
is precalculus needed to take caculus
Amara Reply
It depends on what you already know. Just test yourself with some precalculus questions. If you find them easy, you're good to go.
Spiro
the solution doesn't seem right for this problem
Mars Reply
what is the domain of f(x)=x-4/x^2-2x-15 then
Conney Reply
x is different from -5&3
Seid
All real x except 5 and - 3
Spiro
how to prroved cos⁴x-sin⁴x= cos²x-sin²x are equal
jeric Reply
Don't think that you can.
Elliott
how do you provided cos⁴x-sin⁴x = cos²x-sin²x are equal
jeric Reply
What are the question marks for?
Elliott
Someone should please solve it for me Add 2over ×+3 +y-4 over 5 simplify (×+a)with square root of two -×root 2 all over a multiply 1over ×-y{(×-y)(×+y)} over ×y
Abena Reply
For the first question, I got (3y-2)/15 Second one, I got Root 2 Third one, I got 1/(y to the fourth power) I dont if it's right cause I can barely understand the question.
Is under distribute property, inverse function, algebra and addition and multiplication function; so is a combined question
Abena
find the equation of the line if m=3, and b=-2
Ashley Reply
graph the following linear equation using intercepts method. 2x+y=4
Ashley
how
Wargod
what?
John
ok, one moment
UriEl
how do I post your graph for you?
UriEl
it won't let me send an image?
UriEl
also for the first one... y=mx+b so.... y=3x-2
UriEl
y=mx+b you were already given the 'm' and 'b'. so.. y=3x-2
Tommy
Please were did you get y=mx+b from
Abena
y=mx+b is the formula of a straight line. where m = the slope & b = where the line crosses the y-axis. In this case, being that the "m" and "b", are given, all you have to do is plug them into the formula to complete the equation.
Tommy
thanks Tommy
Nimo
0=3x-2 2=3x x=3/2 then . y=3/2X-2 I think
Given
co ordinates for x x=0,(-2,0) x=1,(1,1) x=2,(2,4)
neil
"7"has an open circle and "10"has a filled in circle who can I have a set builder notation
Fiston Reply
Where do the rays point?
Spiro
x=-b+_Гb2-(4ac) ______________ 2a
Ahlicia Reply
I've run into this: x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2) Which expands to: x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2)) The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes: (r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1)) How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
Carlos Reply
so good
abdikarin
this is an identity when 2 adding two angles within a cosine. it's called the cosine sum formula. there is also a different formula when cosine has an angle minus another angle it's called the sum and difference formulas and they are under any list of trig identities
Brad
strategies to form the general term
carlmark
consider r(a+b) = ra + rb. The a and b are the trig identity.
Mike
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
Mary Reply
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
William
what is f(x)=
Karim Reply
I don't understand
Joe
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As 'f(x)=y'. According to Google, "The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Thomas
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
Thomas
GREAT ANSWER THOUGH!!!
Darius
Thanks.
Thomas
Â
Thomas
It is the  that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks. "Â" or 'Â' ... Â
Thomas
Now it shows, go figure?
Thomas
Practice Key Terms 2

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Source:  OpenStax, Precalculus. OpenStax CNX. Jan 19, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11667/1.6
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