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Graph of f(x)=1/x with its vertical asymptote at x=0.

Vertical asymptote

A vertical asymptote    of a graph is a vertical line x = a where the graph tends toward positive or negative infinity as the inputs approach a . We write

As  x a , f ( x ) ,   or as  x a , f ( x ) .

End behavior of f ( x ) = 1 x

As the values of x approach infinity, the function values approach 0. As the values of x approach negative infinity, the function values approach 0. See [link] . Symbolically, using arrow notation

As  x , f ( x ) 0 , and as  x , f ( x ) 0.

Graph of f(x)=1/x which highlights the segments of the turning points to denote their end behavior.

Based on this overall behavior and the graph, we can see that the function approaches 0 but never actually reaches 0; it seems to level off as the inputs become large. This behavior creates a horizontal asymptote , a horizontal line that the graph approaches as the input increases or decreases without bound. In this case, the graph is approaching the horizontal line y = 0. See [link] .

Graph of f(x)=1/x with its vertical asymptote at x=0 and its horizontal asymptote at y=0.

Horizontal asymptote

A horizontal asymptote    of a graph is a horizontal line y = b where the graph approaches the line as the inputs increase or decrease without bound. We write

As  x  or  x ,   f ( x ) b .

Using arrow notation

Use arrow notation to describe the end behavior and local behavior of the function graphed in [link] .

Graph of f(x)=1/(x-2)+4 with its vertical asymptote at x=2 and its horizontal asymptote at y=4.

Notice that the graph is showing a vertical asymptote at x = 2 , which tells us that the function is undefined at x = 2.

As  x 2 , f ( x ) ,  and as  x 2 + ,   f ( x ) .

And as the inputs decrease without bound, the graph appears to be leveling off at output values of 4, indicating a horizontal asymptote at y = 4. As the inputs increase without bound, the graph levels off at 4.

As  x ,   f ( x ) 4  and as  x ,   f ( x ) 4.
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Use arrow notation to describe the end behavior and local behavior for the reciprocal squared function.

End behavior: as x ± ,   f ( x ) 0 ; Local behavior: as x 0 ,   f ( x ) (there are no x - or y -intercepts)

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Using transformations to graph a rational function

Sketch a graph of the reciprocal function shifted two units to the left and up three units. Identify the horizontal and vertical asymptotes of the graph, if any.

Shifting the graph left 2 and up 3 would result in the function

f ( x ) = 1 x + 2 + 3

or equivalently, by giving the terms a common denominator,

f ( x ) = 3 x + 7 x + 2

The graph of the shifted function is displayed in [link] .

Graph of f(x)=1/(x+2)+3 with its vertical asymptote at x=-2 and its horizontal asymptote at y=3.

Notice that this function is undefined at x = −2 , and the graph also is showing a vertical asymptote at x = −2.

As  x 2 ,   f ( x ) , and as   x 2 + ,   f ( x ) .

As the inputs increase and decrease without bound, the graph appears to be leveling off at output values of 3, indicating a horizontal asymptote at y = 3.

As  x ± ,   f ( x ) 3.
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Sketch the graph, and find the horizontal and vertical asymptotes of the reciprocal squared function that has been shifted right 3 units and down 4 units.

Graph of f(x)=1/(x-3)^2-4 with its vertical asymptote at x=3 and its horizontal asymptote at y=-4.

The function and the asymptotes are shifted 3 units right and 4 units down. As x 3 , f ( x ) , and as x ± , f ( x ) 4.

The function is f ( x ) = 1 ( x 3 ) 2 4.

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Solving applied problems involving rational functions

In [link] , we shifted a toolkit function in a way that resulted in the function f ( x ) = 3 x + 7 x + 2 . This is an example of a rational function. A rational function is a function that can be written as the quotient of two polynomial functions. Many real-world problems require us to find the ratio of two polynomial functions. Problems involving rates and concentrations often involve rational functions.

Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
_3_2_1
felecia
⅗ ⅔½
felecia
_½+⅔-¾
felecia
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
Pawel
ok
Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
Ifeanyi
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Pawel
x*x=2
felecia
2+2x=
felecia
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
Pawel
how do I set up the problem?
Harshika Reply
what is a solution set?
Harshika
find the subring of gaussian integers?
Rofiqul
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Shirley Reply
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Abdullahi
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Mark
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
Abdullahi Reply
find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
X=16
Michael
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
Beyan
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Mark
use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
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Darius
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
Shirley Reply
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Seidu
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Opoku
what is math number
Tric Reply
4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
can you teacch how to solve that🙏
Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Brenna
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, College algebra. OpenStax CNX. Feb 06, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11759/1.3
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