# 5.6 Rational functions  (Page 2/16)

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## Vertical asymptote

A vertical asymptote    of a graph is a vertical line $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=a\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ where the graph tends toward positive or negative infinity as the inputs approach $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}a.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ We write

## End behavior of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{x}$

As the values of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ approach infinity, the function values approach 0. As the values of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ approach negative infinity, the function values approach 0. See [link] . Symbolically, using arrow notation

Based on this overall behavior and the graph, we can see that the function approaches 0 but never actually reaches 0; it seems to level off as the inputs become large. This behavior creates a horizontal asymptote , a horizontal line that the graph approaches as the input increases or decreases without bound. In this case, the graph is approaching the horizontal line $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ See [link] .

## Horizontal asymptote

A horizontal asymptote    of a graph is a horizontal line $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=b\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ where the graph approaches the line as the inputs increase or decrease without bound. We write

## Using arrow notation

Use arrow notation to describe the end behavior and local behavior of the function graphed in [link] .

Notice that the graph is showing a vertical asymptote at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=2,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ which tells us that the function is undefined at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=2.$

And as the inputs decrease without bound, the graph appears to be leveling off at output values of 4, indicating a horizontal asymptote at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=4.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ As the inputs increase without bound, the graph levels off at 4.

Use arrow notation to describe the end behavior and local behavior for the reciprocal squared function.

End behavior: as Local behavior: as (there are no x - or y -intercepts)

## Using transformations to graph a rational function

Sketch a graph of the reciprocal function shifted two units to the left and up three units. Identify the horizontal and vertical asymptotes of the graph, if any.

Shifting the graph left 2 and up 3 would result in the function

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{x+2}+3$

or equivalently, by giving the terms a common denominator,

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{3x+7}{x+2}$

The graph of the shifted function is displayed in [link] .

Notice that this function is undefined at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=-2,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and the graph also is showing a vertical asymptote at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=-2.$

As the inputs increase and decrease without bound, the graph appears to be leveling off at output values of 3, indicating a horizontal asymptote at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=3.$

Sketch the graph, and find the horizontal and vertical asymptotes of the reciprocal squared function that has been shifted right 3 units and down 4 units.

The function and the asymptotes are shifted 3 units right and 4 units down. As $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\to 3,f\left(x\right)\to \infty ,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and as $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\to ±\infty ,f\left(x\right)\to -4.$

The function is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{{\left(x-3\right)}^{2}}-4.$

## Solving applied problems involving rational functions

In [link] , we shifted a toolkit function in a way that resulted in the function $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\frac{3x+7}{x+2}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ This is an example of a rational function. A rational function is a function that can be written as the quotient of two polynomial functions. Many real-world problems require us to find the ratio of two polynomial functions. Problems involving rates and concentrations often involve rational functions.

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
_3_2_1
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⅗ ⅔½
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_½+⅔-¾
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The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
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2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
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Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
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combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
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x*x=2
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2+2x=
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Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
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find the subring of gaussian integers?
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find the value of 2x=32
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
X=16
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Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
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use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
how do we prove the quadratic formular
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what is math number
4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
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Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
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(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
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x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
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Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
x+2y-z=7
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what is the coefficient of -4×
-1
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