# 1.6 Rational expressions

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In this section students will:
• Simplify rational expressions.
• Multiply rational expressions.
• Divide rational expressions.
• Add and subtract rational expressions.
• Simplify complex rational expressions.

A pastry shop has fixed costs of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{}280\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ per week and variable costs of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{}9\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ per box of pastries. The shop’s costs per week in terms of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x,$ the number of boxes made, is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}280+9x.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ We can divide the costs per week by the number of boxes made to determine the cost per box of pastries.

$\frac{280+9x}{x}$

Notice that the result is a polynomial expression divided by a second polynomial expression. In this section, we will explore quotients of polynomial expressions.

## Simplifying rational expressions

The quotient of two polynomial expressions is called a rational expression    . We can apply the properties of fractions to rational expressions, such as simplifying the expressions by canceling common factors from the numerator and the denominator. To do this, we first need to factor both the numerator and denominator. Let’s start with the rational expression shown.

$\frac{{x}^{2}+8x+16}{{x}^{2}+11x+28}$

We can factor the numerator and denominator to rewrite the expression.

$\frac{{\left(x+4\right)}^{2}}{\left(x+4\right)\left(x+7\right)}$

Then we can simplify that expression by canceling the common factor $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(x+4\right).$

$\frac{x+4}{x+7}$

Given a rational expression, simplify it.

1. Factor the numerator and denominator.
2. Cancel any common factors.

## Simplifying rational expressions

Simplify $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{{x}^{2}-9}{{x}^{2}+4x+3}.$

Can the $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{x}^{2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ term be cancelled in [link] ?

No. A factor is an expression that is multiplied by another expression. The $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{x}^{2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ term is not a factor of the numerator or the denominator.

Simplify $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{x-6}{{x}^{2}-36}.$

$\frac{1}{x+6}$

## Multiplying rational expressions

Multiplication of rational expressions works the same way as multiplication of any other fractions. We multiply the numerators to find the numerator of the product, and then multiply the denominators to find the denominator of the product. Before multiplying, it is helpful to factor the numerators and denominators just as we did when simplifying rational expressions. We are often able to simplify the product of rational expressions.

Given two rational expressions, multiply them.

1. Factor the numerator and denominator.
2. Multiply the numerators.
3. Multiply the denominators.
4. Simplify.

## Multiplying rational expressions

Multiply the rational expressions and show the product in simplest form:

$\frac{\left(x+5\right)\left(x-1\right)}{3\left(x+6\right)}\cdot \frac{\left(2x-1\right)}{\left(x+5\right)}$

Multiply the rational expressions and show the product in simplest form:

$\frac{{x}^{2}+11x+30}{{x}^{2}+5x+6}\cdot \frac{{x}^{2}+7x+12}{{x}^{2}+8x+16}$

$\frac{\left(x+5\right)\left(x+6\right)}{\left(x+2\right)\left(x+4\right)}$

## Dividing rational expressions

Division of rational expressions works the same way as division of other fractions. To divide a rational expression by another rational expression, multiply the first expression by the reciprocal of the second. Using this approach, we would rewrite $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{1}{x}÷\frac{{x}^{2}}{3}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ as the product $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{1}{x}\cdot \frac{3}{{x}^{2}}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Once the division expression has been rewritten as a multiplication expression, we can multiply as we did before.

what are you up to?
nothing up todat yet
Miranda
hi
jai
hello
jai
Miranda Drice
jai
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jai
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Miranda
I am living in india
jai
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Miranda
what is the formula for calculating algebraic
I think the formula for calculating algebraic is the statement of the equality of two expression stimulate by a set of addition, multiplication, soustraction, division, raising to a power and extraction of Root. U believe by having those in the equation you will be in measure to calculate it
Miranda
state and prove Cayley hamilton therom
hello
Propessor
hi
Miranda
the Cayley hamilton Theorem state if A is a square matrix and if f(x) is its characterics polynomial then f(x)=0 in another ways evey square matrix is a root of its chatacteristics polynomial.
Miranda
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jai
hi Miranda
jai
thanks
Propessor
welcome
jai
What is algebra
algebra is a branch of the mathematics to calculate expressions follow.
Miranda
Miranda Drice would you mind teaching me mathematics? I think you are really good at math. I'm not good at it. In fact I hate it. 😅😅😅
Jeffrey
lolll who told you I'm good at it
Miranda
something seems to wispher me to my ear that u are good at it. lol
Jeffrey
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Miranda
but seriously, Im really bad at math. And I hate it. But you see, I downloaded this app two months ago hoping to master it.
Jeffrey
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Miranda
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Miranda
Jeffrey
Jeffrey
Miranda
how come you finished in college and you don't like math though
Miranda
gotta practice, holmie
Steve
if you never use it you won't be able to appreciate it
Steve
I don't know why. But Im trying to like it.
Jeffrey
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Jeffrey
so you better
Miranda
what is the solution of the given equation?
which equation
Miranda
I dont know. lol
Jeffrey
Miranda
Jeffrey
answer and questions in exercise 11.2 sums
how do u calculate inequality of irrational number?
Alaba
give me an example
Chris
and I will walk you through it
Chris
cos (-z)= cos z .
what is a algebra
(x+x)3=?
6x
Obed
what is the identity of 1-cos²5x equal to?
__john __05
Kishu
Hi
Abdel
hi
Ye
hi
Nokwanda
C'est comment
Abdel
Hi
Amanda
hello
SORIE
Hiiii
Chinni
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Ranjay
hi
ANSHU
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Chinni
h r u friends
Chinni
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Hassan
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SORIE
I speak French
Abdel
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SORIE
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Yaona
lol nahhh none of us here are stupid it's just that we have Fast, Medium, and slow learner bro but we all going to work things out together
SORIE
it's 12
what is the function of sine with respect of cosine , graphically
tangent bruh
Steve
cosx.cos2x.cos4x.cos8x
sinx sin2x is linearly dependent
what is a reciprocal
The reciprocal of a number is 1 divided by a number. eg the reciprocal of 10 is 1/10 which is 0.1
Shemmy
Reciprocal is a pair of numbers that, when multiplied together, equal to 1. Example; the reciprocal of 3 is ⅓, because 3 multiplied by ⅓ is equal to 1
Jeza
each term in a sequence below is five times the previous term what is the eighth term in the sequence
I don't understand how radicals works pls
How look for the general solution of a trig function